List of counties in Arkansas


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia There are 75 counties in the U.S. state of Arkansas.[1] Arkansas is tied with Mississippi for the most counties with two county seats, at 10. County FIPS code…

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There are 75 counties in the U.S. state of Arkansas.[1] Arkansas is tied with Mississippi for the most counties with two county seats, at 10.

FIPS code County seat[1] Est.[2] Origin Etymology[2] Population[3] Area[4] Map
Arkansas County 001 Stuttgart,
December 13, 1813 1st County (Eastern Arkansas) the Arkansas River 16,722 1,033.79 sq mi
(2,678 km2)
State map highlighting Arkansas County
Ashley County 003 Hamburg November 30, 1848 Chicot, Drew and Union counties Chester Ashley (1791–1848), a U.S. Senator from Arkansas 18,674 939.08 sq mi
(2,432 km2)
State map highlighting Ashley County
Baxter County 005 Mountain Home March 24, 1873 Fulton, Izard, Marion, and Searcy counties Elisha Baxter (1827–1899), a governor of Arkansas 42,144 586.74 sq mi
(1,520 km2)
State map highlighting Baxter County
Benton County 007 Bentonville September 30, 1836 Washington County Thomas Hart Benton (1782–1858), a U.S. Senator from Missouri 293,692 884.86 sq mi
(2,292 km2)
State map highlighting Benton County
Boone County 009 Harrison April 9, 1869 Carroll and Marion counties Some historians[who?] say Daniel Boone (1734–1820), the American frontiersman 37,830 601.82 sq mi
(1,559 km2)
State map highlighting Boone County
Bradley County 011 Warren December 18, 1840 Union County Hugh Bradley, a soldier in the War of 1812 and early area settler 10,408 654.38 sq mi
(1,695 km2)
State map highlighting Bradley County
Calhoun County 013 Hampton December 6, 1850 Dallas and Ouachita counties John C. Calhoun (1782–1850), 7th Vice President of the United States and a Senator from South Carolina 4,741 632.54 sq mi
(1,638 km2)
State map highlighting Calhoun County
Carroll County 015 Berryville,
Eureka Springs
November 1, 1833 Izard County and later by Madison County (1870) Charles Carroll of Carrollton (1737–1832), a signer of the Declaration of Independence 28,435 638.81 sq mi
(1,655 km2)
State map highlighting Carroll County
Chicot County 017 Lake Village October 15, 1823 Arkansas County Point Chicot on the Mississippi River 10,019 690.88 sq mi
(1,789 km2)
State map highlighting Chicot County
Clark County 019 Arkadelphia December 15, 1818 Arkansas (1818) William Clark (1770–1838), explorer and Governor of the Missouri Territory 21,321 882.60 sq mi
(2,286 km2)
State map highlighting Clark County
Clay County 021 Piggott,
March 24, 1873 Randolph and Greene counties, and originally named Clayton before 1875 John Clayton, a state senator; later shortened to Clay
to avoid misassociation with Powell Clayton
14,350 641.42 sq mi
(1,661 km2)
State map highlighting Clay County
Cleburne County 023 Heber Springs February 20, 1883 White, Van Buren, and Independence counties Patrick Cleburne (1828–1864), a Confederate General in the Civil War 25,015 591.91 sq mi
(1,533 km2)
State map highlighting Cleburne County
Cleveland County 025 Rison April 17, 1873 Bradley, Dallas, Jefferson counties, and formerly named Dorsey County (from 1885) Grover Cleveland (1837–1908), 22nd and 24th President of the United States
(formerly Stephen Dorsey, U.S. Senator from Arkansas)
7,514 598.80 sq mi
(1,551 km2)
State map highlighting Cleveland County
Columbia County 027 Magnolia December 17, 1852 Formed from Lafayette, Hempstead, and Ouachita counties Columbia, a female personification of the United States 22,672 766.86 sq mi
(1,986 km2)
State map highlighting Columbia County
Conway County 029 Morrilton October 20, 1825 Pulaski County Henry Wharton Conway (1793–1827), territorial delegate to the United States House of Representatives 20,873 566.66 sq mi
(1,468 km2)
State map highlighting Conway County
Craighead County 031 Jonesboro,
Lake City
February 19, 1859 Mississippi, Greene, Poinsett counties Thomas Craighead (1798–1862), a state senator who ironically opposed the creation of the county 112,218 712.98 sq mi
(1,847 km2)
State map highlighting Craighead County
Crawford County 033 Van Buren October 18, 1820 Pulaski County William H. Crawford (1772–1834), a politician who served as Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of War 60,378 604.20 sq mi
(1,565 km2)
State map highlighting Crawford County
Crittenden County 035 Marion October 22, 1825 Phillips County Robert Crittenden (1797–1834), Governor of the Arkansas Territory 47,525 636.74 sq mi
(1,649 km2)
State map highlighting Crittenden County
Cross County 037 Wynne November 15, 1862 St. Francis, Poinsett, and Crittenden counties David C. Cross, a Confederate soldier in the Civil War and local politician 16,681 622.33 sq mi
(1,612 km2)
State map highlighting Cross County
Dallas County 039 Fordyce January 1, 1845 Clark and Bradley counties George M. Dallas (1792–1864), 11th Vice President of the United States 6,308 668.16 sq mi
(1,731 km2)
State map highlighting Dallas County
Desha County 041 Arkansas City December 12, 1838 Arkansas, Union counties, then from Chicot County (prior to 1880), and Lincoln (prior 1930) Benjamin Desha, a soldier in the War of 1812 11,090 819.52 sq mi
(2,123 km2)
State map highlighting Desha County
Drew County 043 Monticello November 26, 1846 Bradley, Chicot, Desha, Union counties Thomas Stevenson Drew (1802–1879), 3rd Governor of Arkansas 17,110 835.65 sq mi
(2,164 km2)
State map highlighting Drew County
Faulkner County 045 Conway April 12, 1873 Pulaski and Conway counties Sandford C. Faulkner (1806–1874), composer and fiddler known for the "Arkansas Traveler" 125,106 664.01 sq mi
(1,720 km2)
State map highlighting Faulkner County
Franklin County 047 Ozark,
December 19, 1837 Crawford and Johnson counties Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), founding father of the United States 17,173 619.69 sq mi
(1,605 km2)
State map highlighting Franklin County
Fulton County 049 Salem December 21, 1842 Izard County and then later from Lawrence County (prior 1850) William S. Fulton (1795–1844), the last Governor of the Arkansas Territory prior to statehood 12,145 620.32 sq mi
(1,607 km2)
State map highlighting Fulton County
Garland County 051 Hot Springs April 5, 1873 Montgomery, Hot Spring, and Saline counties Augustus Hill Garland (1832–1899), U.S. Senator and 11th Governor of Arkansas 100,330 734.57 sq mi
(1,903 km2)
State map highlighting Garland County
Grant County 053 Sheridan February 4, 1869 Jefferson, Hot Spring, Saline counties Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885), 18th President of the United States 18,090 633.01 sq mi
(1,639 km2)
State map highlighting Grant County
Greene County 055 Paragould November 5, 1833 Lawrence County and later on by Randolph Nathanael Greene (1742–1786), the Revolutionary War General 46,317 579.65 sq mi
(1,501 km2)
State map highlighting Greene County
Hempstead County 057 Hope December 15, 1818 Arkansas (1818) Edward Hempstead (1780–1817), Delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives from the Missouri Territory 19,694 741.36 sq mi
(1,920 km2)
State map highlighting Hempstead County
Hot Spring County 059 Malvern November 2, 1829 Clark County and later from Montgomery County (prior 1880) Naturally occurring hot springs within the county[Note 1] 33,148 622.16 sq mi
(1,611 km2)
State map highlighting Hot Spring County
Howard County 061 Nashville April 17, 1873 Pike, Hempstead, Polk, Sevier counties. James H. Howard, a state senator 12,698 595.20 sq mi
(1,542 km2)
State map highlighting Howard County
Independence County 063 Batesville October 20, 1820 Lawrence County (1820) The Declaration of Independence 37,723 771.57 sq mi
(1,998 km2)
State map highlighting Independence County
Izard County 065 Melbourne October 27, 1825 Independence, Crawford counties, and later from Fulton (prior 1880) George Izard (1776–1828), Governor of the Arkansas Territory and a general during the War of 1812 13,911 584.02 sq mi
(1,513 km2)
State map highlighting Izard County
Jackson County 067 Newport November 5, 1829 Lawrence and St. Francis counties Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), 7th President of the United States 16,811 641.45 sq mi
(1,661 km2)
State map highlighting Jackson County
Jefferson County 069 Pine Bluff November 2, 1829 Arkansas and Pulaski Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), 3rd President of the United States 65,861 913.70 sq mi
(2,366 km2)
State map highlighting Jefferson County
Johnson County 071 Clarksville November 16, 1833 Pope County, and a small portion from Madison County (prior 1890) Benjamin Johnson (1784–1849), the first judge of the federal district court for Arkansas 25,845 682.74 sq mi
(1,768 km2)
State map highlighting Johnson County
Lafayette County 073 Lewisville October 15, 1827 Hempstead County and later from Columbia County (prior 1910) Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834), a Frenchman who served as a General in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War 6,163 545.07 sq mi
(1,412 km2)
State map highlighting Lafayette County
Lawrence County 075 Walnut Ridge January 15, 1815 Arkansas and New Madrid (MO) in 1815 James Lawrence (1781–1813), an American naval officer during the War of 1812 16,292 592.34 sq mi
(1,534 km2)
State map highlighting Lawrence County
Lee County 077 Marianna April 17, 1873 Phillips, Monroe, Crittenden, and St. Francis counties. Robert E. Lee (1807–1870), a confederate general during the Civil War 8,619 619.47 sq mi
(1,604 km2)
State map highlighting Lee County
Lincoln County 079 Star City March 28, 1871 Arkansas, Bradley, Desha, Drew, and Jefferson counties Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865), 16th President of the United States 13,037 572.17 sq mi
(1,482 km2)
State map highlighting Lincoln County
Little River County 081 Ashdown March 5, 1867 Sevier County Little River, a tributary of the Red River 11,944 564.87 sq mi
(1,463 km2)
State map highlighting Little River County
Logan County 083 Booneville,
March 22, 1871 Franklin, Johnson, Pope, Scott, and Yell counties (Formally named Sarber County) James Logan (1791–1859), an early settler of western Arkansas 21,215 731.50 sq mi
(1,895 km2)
State map highlighting Logan County
Lonoke County 085 Lonoke April 16, 1873 Prairie and Pulaski counties An oak tree that stood on the site of the current county seat 74,722 802.43 sq mi
(2,078 km2)
State map highlighting Lonoke County
Madison County 087 Huntsville September 30, 1836 Washington County Madison County, Alabama, the origin of some early settlers[5] 16,960 837.06 sq mi
(2,168 km2)
State map highlighting Madison County
Marion County 089 Yellville November 3, 1835 Izard County Francis Marion (1732–1795), an American general during the Revolutionary War 16,978 640.39 sq mi
(1,659 km2)
State map highlighting Marion County
Miller County 091 Texarkana April 1, 1820[Note 2] Lafayette County Former Miller County, Arkansas Territory (1820-38), which was named for
James Miller (1776–1851), first Governor of the Arkansas Territory
42,649 637.48 sq mi
(1,651 km2)
State map highlighting Miller County
Mississippi County 093 Blytheville,
November 1, 1833 Crittenden the Mississippi River 39,661 919.73 sq mi
(2,382 km2)
State map highlighting Mississippi County
Monroe County 095 Clarendon November 2, 1829[6] Phillips and Arkansas counties James Monroe (1758–1831), 5th President of the United States 6,683 621.41 sq mi
(1,609 km2)
State map highlighting Monroe County
Montgomery County 097 Mount Ida December 9, 1842 Hot Spring Richard Montgomery (1738–1775), an American general during the Revolutionary War 8,611 800.29 sq mi
(2,073 km2)
State map highlighting Montgomery County
Nevada County 099 Prescott March 20, 1871 Columbia, Hempstead, Ouachita counties the state of Nevada, which has a similar outline to the county's boundaries 8,187 620.78 sq mi
(1,608 km2)
State map highlighting Nevada County
Newton County 101 Jasper December 14, 1842 Carroll Thomas W. Newton (1804–1853), a state senator and member of the United States House of Representatives from Arkansas 7,204 823.18 sq mi
(2,132 km2)
State map highlighting Newton County
Ouachita County 103 Camden November 29, 1842 Union the Ouachita River 22,306 739.63 sq mi
(1,916 km2)
State map highlighting Ouachita County
Perry County 105 Perryville December 18, 1840 Conway County Oliver Hazard Perry (1785–1819), a naval officer in the War of 1812 9,964 560.47 sq mi
(1,452 km2)
State map highlighting Perry County
Phillips County 107 Helena May 1,1820 Arkansas and Lawrence County Sylvanus Phillips, a member of the territorial legislature 15,906 727.29 sq mi
(1,884 km2)
State map highlighting Phillips County
Pike County 109 Murfreesboro November 1, 1833 Clark and Hempstead counties Zebulon Pike (1779–1813), the explorer and discoverer of Pikes Peak 10,066 613.88 sq mi
(1,590 km2)
State map highlighting Pike County
Poinsett County 111 Harrisburg February 28, 1838 Greene, Lawrence counties Joel Poinsett (1779–1851), a United States Secretary of War and namesake of the poinsettia 22,660 763.39 sq mi
(1,977 km2)
State map highlighting Poinsett County
Polk County 113 Mena November 30, 1844 Sevier James K. Polk (1795–1849), the eleventh president of the United States 19,353 862.42 sq mi
(2,234 km2)
State map highlighting Polk County
Pope County 115 Russellville November 2, 1829 Crawford County John Pope (1770–1845), a governor of the Arkansas Territory 63,789 830.79 sq mi
(2,152 km2)
State map highlighting Pope County
Prairie County 117 Des Arc,
DeValls Bluff
October 25, 1846 Arkansas and Pulaski counties Grand Prairie of eastern Arkansas 8,135 675.76 sq mi
(1,750 km2)
State map highlighting Prairie County
Pulaski County 119 Little Rock December 15, 1818 Arkansas and Lawrence counties (1818) Casimir Pulaski (1745–1779), the Polish general in the American Revolutionary War 397,821 807.84 sq mi
(2,092 km2)
State map highlighting Pulaski County
Randolph County 121 Pocahontas October 29, 1835 Lawrence County John Randolph of Roanoke (1773–1833), a U.S. congressman from Virginia 18,865 656.04 sq mi
(1,699 km2)
State map highlighting Randolph County
St. Francis County 123 Forrest City October 13, 1827 Formed from Phillips County The St. Francis River, a tributary of the Mississippi River 22,739 642.40 sq mi
(1,664 km2)
State map highlighting St. Francis County
Saline County 125 Benton November 2, 1835 Independence and Pulaski Salt reserves found within its borders 125,233 730.46 sq mi
(1,892 km2)
State map highlighting Saline County
Scott County 127 Waldron November 5, 1833 Crawford and Pope counties Andrew Scott (1789–1841), a judge of the Arkansas Territory Supreme Court 9,822 898.09 sq mi
(2,326 km2)
State map highlighting Scott County
Searcy County 129 Marshall December 13, 1838 Marion County Richard Searcy, a judge from Lawrence County 7,880 668.51 sq mi
(1,731 km2)
State map highlighting Searcy County
Sebastian County 131 Fort Smith,
January 6, 1851 Crawford and Scott William K. Sebastian (1812–1865), a U.S. Senator 128,400 546.04 sq mi
(1,414 km2)
State map highlighting Sebastian County
Sevier County 133 De Queen October 17, 1828 Hempstead County Ambrose Hundley Sevier (1801–1848), U.S. Senator 15,783 581.35 sq mi
(1,506 km2)
State map highlighting Sevier County
Sharp County 135 Ash Flat July 18, 1868 Lawrence County Ephraim Sharp, an early settler and state legislator from the area 17,622 606.35 sq mi
(1,570 km2)
State map highlighting Sharp County
Stone County 137 Mountain View April 21, 1873 Izard, Independence, Searcy, Van Buren Rugged, rocky area terrain 12,481 609.43 sq mi
(1,578 km2)
State map highlighting Stone County
Union County 139 El Dorado November 2, 1829 Clark and Hempstead counties Petition of citizens in the Spirit of "Union and Unity" 38,340 1,055.27 sq mi
(2,733 km2)
State map highlighting Union County
Van Buren County 141 Clinton November 11, 1833 Conway, Izard, and Independence Martin Van Buren (1782–1862), eighth president of the United States 15,694 724.32 sq mi
(1,876 km2)
State map highlighting Van Buren County
Washington County 143 Fayetteville October 17, 1828 Lovely County George Washington (1732–1799), first president of the United States 250,057 951.72 sq mi
(2,465 km2)
State map highlighting Washington County
White County 145 Searcy October 23, 1835 Independence, Jackson and Pulaski counties Hugh L. White (1773–1840), U.S. Senator from Tennessee and U.S. presidential candidate in 1836 for the Whig Party 77,207 1,042.36 sq mi
(2,700 km2)
State map highlighting White County
Woodruff County 147 Augusta November 26, 1862 Jackson and St. Francis counties William Woodruff (1795–1885), the first newspaper publisher in Arkansas 6,116 594.05 sq mi
(1,539 km2)
State map highlighting Woodruff County
Yell County 149 Dardanelle,
December 5, 1840 Hot Spring, Pope, and Scott County Archibald Yell (1797–1847), the second governor of Arkansas 20,155 948.84 sq mi
(2,457 km2)
State map highlighting Yell County

Created on October 13, 1827, partitioned from Crawford County. The Treaty of Washington, 1828 ceded most of its territory to Indian Territory. Abolished October 17, 1828 with the remaining portion becoming Washington County.[7]

Miller County[edit]

Created from Hempstead County. Most of its northern portion was in Choctaw Nation (now part of Oklahoma); rest of northern portion was dissolved into Sevier County in 1828. All of its southern portion was in Texas, and was nominally dissolved into Lafayette County in 1838.

Fictional counties in Arkansas[edit]

Bogan County[edit]

A fictional county in Arkansas as portrayed in the movie White Lightning and in the movie Dark Night of the Scarecrow.

Deeson County[edit]

A fictional county in southwest Arkansas near the intersection of Highway 71 and Interstate 82 as portrayed in the movie Smokey and the Bandit.

Green River County[edit]

A fictional county in Arkansas portrayed in the series Supernatural. Sam and Dean were arrested in Little Rock (which is located in Pulaski County), but were sent to Green River County Detention.


  1. ^ The namesake springs were lost to Garland County in 1873.
  2. ^ Abolished 1838, reestablished December 22, 1874.


  • State of Arkansas local government resources search

Loser is an Indian Telugu -language sports drama streaming television series of anthology of different stories starring Priyadarshi, Kalpika Ganesh, Baby Annie, Sayaji Shinde, Shashank (actor), Pavani Gangireddy, Chandra Vempaty . Contents 1 Cast 1.1 Season 1 1.2 Season 2 2 Episodes 2.1 Season 1 3 Reception 4 References Cast Season 1

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Loser is an Indian Telugu-language sports drama streaming television series of anthology of different stories starring Priyadarshi, Kalpika Ganesh, Baby Annie, Sayaji Shinde, Shashank, Pavani Gangireddy, Chandra Vempaty.


Season 1[edit]

  • Priyadarshi as Suri Yadav
    • Srikar Isetti as Jr.Suri Yadav
  • Shashank as Wilson
  • Kalpika Ganesh as Ruby Shabana 'Ruby'.
    • Baby Annie as Jr. Ruby Shabana 'Ruby'.
  • Pavani Gangireddy as Pallavi, Suri's love interest, and Sexual assaulted by Krishnan Siva Rama Chandran.
  • Komalee Prasad as Asha, Wilson's wife.
  • Dr.Malhotra Shivam as Saajid, Ruby's Husband.
  • Harshith Reddy as John, Wilson's son.
  • Pavan Kumar as Sunny, Suri's younger brother.
  • Abhay Bethiganti as Tippu Sultan 'Tippu', Suri's Best friend.
    • Raahil as Jr.Tippu Sultan 'Tippu'
  • Chandra Vempaty as Chenchulayya, Ruby's Badminton Coach.
  • Sayaji Shinde as Irfan, Ruby's father.
  • Satya Krishnan as Ruksana, Ruby's mother.
  • Vasu Inturi as Joseph, Wilson's elder brother.
  • Jaswica Nemo as Keerthana, Young Ruby's best friend.
  • Viren Thanbidorai as Krishnan Siva Rama Chandran
  • Ashok Kumar. K as Ranganath.
  • Banerjee as Jairaj, Suri's Mentor and Pallavi's father (Cameo appearance)
  • Roopa Lakshmi as Pallavi's mother.
  • Keshav Deepak as Sundar,Wilson's cricket coach.
  • Dr.Giri as Arjun Sharma
  • Sattanna as Sattanna

Season 2[edit]

  • Dhanya Balakrishna as Maya Krishnan Siva Rama Chandran, Krishnan Siva Ramachandran's Daughter.
  • Sunayana as Adult Keerthana, Ruby's best friend
    • Jaswica Nemo as Young Keerthana.
  • Ravi Varma as Ravinder, Suri's Shooting Coach.
  • Venkat as Raghavender (Cameo role)
  • Shishir Sharma as Farhan, Saajed's Father.
  • Surya as Govardhan.
  • Krishna Teja as Bobby.
  • Karthik Rebba as Elder Parithosh
    • Armaan as Younger Parithosh
  • Gayatri Bharghavi as Kaveri, Ruby's Inter college principal.
  • Sammetta Gandhi as Toy seller
  • Charan Devudula as Karan, Arjun Sharma's son
  • Tarak Ponnappa as Vinod, Pallavi's Business partner
  • Lakshmi as Gouri.


Season 1[edit]


The series received generally favourable reviews with the actors' performances being praised.[1]


"Bitter Sweet Symphony" is a song recorded by English rock band the Verve as the lead track on their third studio album, Urban Hymns (1997). The song was released on 16 June 1997 by Hut Recordings and…

"Bitter Sweet Symphony" is a song recorded by English rock band the Verve as the lead track on their third studio album, Urban Hymns (1997). The song was released on 16 June 1997 by Hut Recordings and Virgin Records as the first single from the album, reaching number two on the UK Singles Chart and remaining in the chart for three months.[4] It is based on a sample from the Andrew Loog Oldham orchestral cover of the Rolling Stones' song "The Last Time" and involved some legal controversy surrounding a plagiarism charge. As a result, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards were added to the songwriting credits, and all royalties from the song went to former Rolling Stones manager Allen Klein. In April 2019, Jagger and Richards ceded their rights to the song to the Verve's songwriter Richard Ashcroft.[3]

Acclaimed in music publications, "Bitter Sweet Symphony" was named Rolling Stone and NME Single of the Year for 1997 and is considered one of the defining songs of the Britpop era. The accompanying music video features Ashcroft walking down the busy pavement of Hoxton Street in Hoxton, East London, oblivious to his surroundings and refusing to change his stride or direction throughout.[5][6] At the 1998 Brit Awards, "Bitter Sweet Symphony" was nominated for Best British Single. The song was released in the US as a single in March 1998 by Virgin Records America, reaching number 12 on the Billboard Hot 100,[7] and the music video was nominated for Video of the Year, Best Group Video, and Best Alternative Video at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards.[8][9] In 1999, the song was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Rock Song.[10]


Producer Youth said: "This was certainly the most successful track I've done. I think Richard had actually cut a version with John Leckie but, by the time I came on board, he didn't want to do the song. I persuaded him to have a go at cutting a version but at first he wasn't really into it. It was only once we'd put strings on it that he started getting excited. Then, towards the end, Richard wanted to chuck all the album away and start again. What was my reaction? Horror. Sheer horror. All I could say was, I really think you should reconsider."[11]

Credits dispute[edit]

The strings riff that runs through the entire song is based on a sample from the 1965 Andrew Oldham Orchestra recording of the Rolling Stones' song "The Last Time". The Andrew Oldham Orchestra riff was arranged and written by David Whitaker.[12][13] The Rolling Stones' song was itself strongly inspired by "This May Be the Last Time" by the Staple Singers.[14] The Verve negotiated rights to use a five-note sample of the riff from the recording's copyright holder, Decca Records, but they did not obtain permission from former Rolling Stones manager Allen Klein, who owned the copyrights to the band's pre-1970 songs, including "The Last Time".[15][16][17] Although "Bitter Sweet Symphony" had already been released, Klein refused to grant a licence for the sample.[15] This led to a lawsuit with ABKCO Records, Klein's holding company, which was settled out of court. The Verve relinquished all royalties to Klein, the songwriting credits were changed to Jagger–Richards, and Ashcroft received

,000 for completely relinquishing rights.[18][15]

Verve bassist Simon Jones explained, "We were told it was going to be a 50/50 split, and then they saw how well the record was doing. They rung up and said we want 100 percent or take it out of the shops, you don't have much choice."[19] Ashcroft sarcastically said, "This is the best song Jagger and Richards have written in 20 years,"[20] noting it was the Rolling Stones' biggest UK hit since "Brown Sugar".[19]

Asked in 1999 whether he believed that the result was fair, Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards said: "I'm out of whack here, this is serious lawyer shit. If the Verve can write a better song, they can keep the money."[21][22]

In May 2019, Ashcroft received the Ivor Novello Award for Outstanding Contribution to British Music from the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers, and Authors. At the ceremony Ashcroft revealed that following negotiations with Klein's son, Jody, and the Rolling Stones' manager Joyce Smith, the dispute had been settled,[3][23] stating:

As of last month, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards signed over all their publishing for "Bitter Sweet Symphony", which was a truly kind and magnanimous thing for them to do. I never had a personal beef with the Stones. They've always been the greatest rock and roll band in the world. It's been a fantastic development. It's life-affirming in a way.[3]

Music video[edit]

A screenshot at the beginning of the music video showing vocalist Richard Ashcroft standing on a pavement in Hoxton, east London
Hoxton Street and Falkirk Street, London N1, UK. Pictured in 2002

Route scheme in the music video

The music video was directed by Walter A. Stern[24] and was released on 11 June 1997.[24] The video is a homage to the single continuous shot docu-fiction music video for Massive Attack's "Unfinished Sympathy" and shows Richard Ashcroft miming the lyrics while walking down a busy London pavement, without changing his stride or direction throughout, except for one instance when he is forced to stop for a moving car and views his reflection in the car's tinted window.[6] He narrowly avoids being hit by a car as he starts his walk, repeatedly bumping into passersby (causing one young woman to lose balance and fall), and he also jumps on top of the bonnet of another vehicle stopped in his path (the driver gets out of her car and proceeds to confront him, while he continues unflinchingly). At the end of the video, the rest of the Verve join Ashcroft, and the final shot sees them walking down the street into the distance. This then leads into the beginning of the video for "The Drugs Don't Work".[25] The music video received heavy rotation on music channels and was nominated for a number of awards, including three MTV Awards at the 1998 MTV Video Music Awards.[9]

Ashcroft starts walking from the southeast corner of the intersection of Hoxton and Falkirk Streets in Hoxton in the East End of London,[26] subsequently proceeding north along the east side of Hoxton Street until he reaches Hoxton Gardens. He then crosses to the corner of Purcell Street and walks back toward his starting point before being joined by the rest of the band at the corner of Crondall Street, across the street from where he had started. The British comedy band Fat Les would later release a direct parody for their 1998 song "Vindaloo", an alternative anthem for England at the 1998 FIFA World Cup, in which Paul Kaye takes the role of an Ashcroft lookalike who is mocked by a growing group of passersby as the video progresses.[27] In 2016, The Telegraph named Hoxton Street in its list of the 54 locations that defined the Britpop era.[28] English journalist Francesca Perry of The Guardian included the video in a list of the best music videos about city life.[29]

In an alternate version of the video, Ashcroft stops walking when he bumps into three men who then beat him. With blood on his face, Ashcroft stands up and continues to walk. The video cuts to nighttime and ends when Ashcroft walks up to a fence, stops, leans to peer through a gap and slowly extends a finger to touch it.[30]

Live 8[edit]

On 2 July 2005 at the Live 8 concert in Hyde Park, London, Coldplay invited Ashcroft to perform the song with them during their set. They played it after only one rehearsal in Crystal Palace. Ashcroft was introduced by Chris Martin as "the best singer in the world" and he described the song as "probably the best song ever written."[31][32] On 25 December 2005, a documentary entitled Live 8: A Bitter Sweet Symphony was aired, reliving moments of the day and featuring a portion of Ashcroft's performance as the music for the show's opening soundtrack.[33]

Accolades and legacy[edit]

"Bitter Sweet Symphony" is built on a slow-rolling fat beat, a pomp and circumstance violin loop and singer "Mad" Richard Ashcroft's elliptical, snake-swallowing-its-tail lyrics. It is an infectious, glorious piece of pop music.

—Gil Kaufman writing for MTV, September 1997[34]

Regarded as the band's signature song and one of the defining tracks and music videos of the Britpop era, "Bitter Sweet Symphony" has been featured in a number of best-ever song lists and polls. It was named Rolling Stone and NME Single of the Year for 1997. In 1998, BBC Radio 1 listeners voted it the third on the Best Track Ever list.[35] That same year, it was named the third-best single of 1997 by New York City weekly The Village Voice's Pazz & Jop annual critics' poll. In a 2005 Channel 4 poll, the music video was ranked eighth on a list of the 100 Greatest Pop Videos.[36]

In 2007, NME magazine placed the song at number 18 in its list of the "50 Greatest Indie Anthems Ever".[37] In September 2007, a poll of 50 songwriters in Q magazine placed it in a list of the "Top 10 Greatest Tracks."[38] In the Australian Triple J Hottest 100 of All Time, 2009, the track was voted the 14th-best song of all time.[39]Pitchfork Media included the song at number 29 on its "Top 200 Tracks of the 90s" list.[40] The publication also included it in its collection of The Pitchfork 500.[41] In 2011, NME placed it at number 9 on its "150 Best Tracks of the Past 15 Years" list.[42] Despite the fact that the Verve have several hit singles, the song was placed at number one in Paste magazine's poll of its 25 "awesome one-hit wonders of the 1990s."[43] In 2015, Rolling Stone readers voted it the third greatest Britpop song in a poll (after "Common People" by Pulp and "Don't Look Back in Anger" by Oasis).[44] In 2004, it was ranked at number 382 on Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time,"[45] and was re-ranked at 392 in 2010. According to Acclaimed Music, it is the 59th most-celebrated song in popular music history.[46]

In 2021, American pop punk band Four Year Strong recorded a cover of the song, which is featured as a bonus track on the deluxe edition of their 2020 album Brain Pain.

Track listings[edit]

UK CD1 and cassette single (HUTDG 82; HUTC 82)[47][48]

  1. "Bitter Sweet Symphony" (original)
  2. "Lord I Guess I'll Never Know"
  3. "Country Song"
  4. "Bitter Sweet Symphony" (radio edit)

UK CD2 (HUTDX 82)[49]

  1. "Bitter Sweet Symphony" (extended version)
  2. "So Sister"
  3. "Echo Bass"

UK 12-inch single (HUTT 82)[50]

A1. "Bitter Sweet Symphony (original)
A2. "Lord I Guess I'll Never Know"
B1. "Bitter Sweet Symphony" (James Lavelle mix)
B2. "Country Song"

European CD single (HUTCDE 82)[51]

  1. "Bitter Sweet Symphony" (radio edit)
  2. "So Sister"

US CD and cassette single (V25D-38634; 4KM-38634)[52][53]

  1. "Bitter Sweet Symphony" (original) – 5:58
  2. "Lord I Guess I'll Never Know" – 4:50
  3. "So Sister" – 4:10
  4. "Echo Bass" – 6:38



Release history[edit]


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Peñafiel was founded in Tehuacán, Puebla around 1928. Current presentations for products include Naturel, Twist and Classic . Cadbury Schweppes acquired Peñafiel in 1992, adding …

Peñafiel is a Mexican mineral water brand currently manufactured by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group.[1]


Peñafiel was founded in Tehuacán, Puebla around 1928.

Current presentations for products include Naturel, Twist and Classic.

Cadbury Schweppes acquired Peñafiel in 1992, adding the historic mineral water to a family that includes many other historic brands. Peñafiel grew under Cadbury Schweppes management, rolling out line extensions and innovative packaging. In August 2003, Peñafiel Twist spun into the marketplace, bringing consumers fruit-flavored mineral waters that contain more than 75% fewer calories than traditional soft drinks. The brand followed this with Peñafiel Naturel in April 2004, which contains no artificial sweeteners but still has about 75% fewer calories than most sodas.

Peñafiel is part of Plano, Texas-based Dr Pepper Snapple Group, an integrated refreshment-beverage business marketing more than 50 beverage brands throughout North America.

On June 18, 2019, the Center for Environmental Health found that Peñafiel and Whole Foods owned Starkey Water had high levels of the toxic metal, arsenic.


Peñafiel is produced in orange, lemon, strawberry, grapefruit, arándano (cranberry), coco, lime, pineapple, sangria (punch wine), and apple flavors.


External links[edit]

  • Peñafiel on

• Teri Meri Ikk Jindri on ZEE5\• "Ishq Pe Karle Bharosa song - Teri Meri Ek Jindari". [1]. {{cite web}}: External link in |publisher= (help)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Teri Meri Ikk Jindri is an Indian Hindi-language romantic television drama broadcasting on Zee TV by replacing Guddan Tumse Na Ho Payega.[1][2] It premiered on 27 January 2021 and is produced by Prateek Sharma, under the production of LSD Films.[3] The series stars Amandeep Sidhu, Adhvik Mahajan and Aalisha Panwar.[4][5]


A carefree man who runs a dairy falls in love with an aspiring entrepreneur who wants to start a taxi service for women. Mahi and Jogi get married, but the Mahi refuses to bow down. Mahi's sister's husband aka pappuji breaks jogi's legs. Mahi vows to take revenge and compete in Mrs. Amristar's Competition. There is a dance competition held between chanda (pappuji's sister ) and mahi. Dance competition begins between Mahi and Chanda. Jogi foils Chanda's attempt to hurt Mahi. Chanda retracts from the bet when Mahi wins the competition. Chanda strikes a deal with Renu to buy her silence. Pappu sides with Chanda in front of Shalu and states that Mahi is better than her. Meanwhile, Jogi gives a surprise to Mahi. Jogi believes that Mahi will fall in love with him. Seema tells Mahi to withdraw from the competition. When the competition gets scrapped, Jogi faces Pappu with Mahi and challenges him. Jogi's mother and mahi's mother accepts mahi after the end of the competition. Later, Mahi professes her feelings to Jogi. In the process of saving Jogi's life, Mahi gets shot. Mahi's condition terrifies Jogi. Later, Mahi asks Jogi to fulfil her wish. But Jogi refuses to be a singer as he can't sing by his will. Sooner, Jogi's obsessed lover Avneet makes an entry. Rupa tells Mahi that before jogi and her marriage, Jogi's alliance was fixed with Avneet. Mahi fears getting separated from Jogi. Avneet first conspires against Seema( Mahi's mother) and then Aakash ( Mahi's younger brother). Also, Avneet is adamant to make Jogi sing.



  • Adhvik Mahajan as Jogi Arora: Mahi's husband; Roopa's Son; Bishno's grandson; Laado's uncle (2021)
  • Amandeep Sidhu as Mahi Arora (née Chopra): Jogi's wife; Seema and Dharmpal's youngest daughter; Shalu, Renu, and Akash's sister (2021)
  • Aalisha Panwar as Avneet: Jogi's obsessive lover (2021)


  • Jaanvi Sangwan as Bishno "Beeji" Arora: Jogi's grandmother; Roopa's mother-in-law; Mahi's grandmother-in-law (2021)
  • Vishavpreet Kaur as Roopa Arora: Jogi's mother; Mahi's mother-in-law; Bishno's daughter-in-law (2021)
  • Puvika Gupta as Laado: Jogi's niece; Roopa's granddaughter; Bishno's great-granddaughter (2021)
  • Netra Kapoor as Priya: Pankaj's wife; Mahi's best friend (2021)
  • Shabaaz Abdullah Badi as Pankaj: Priya's husband; Jogi's Cousin brother and a supportive best friend (2021)
  • Manoj Dutt as Madanlal Chopra: Dharampal's father; Seema's father-in-law; Mahi, Shalu, Renu, and Akash's grandfather (2021)
  • Saniya Nagdev as Seema Chopra: Dharampal's wife; Mahi, Shalu, Renu, and Akash's mother (2021) (Dead)
  • Mandeep Kumar as Dharampal Chopra: Seema's husband; Mahi, Shalu, Renu, and Akash's father (2021)
  • Manoj Chandila as Pratap Sehgal "Pappuji": Shalu's husband; Chanda's brother; Mahi, Renu and Akash's brother-in-law; Seema and Dharampal's son-in-law (2021)
  • Shyn Khurana as Shalu Sehgal (née Chopra): Pappuji's wife; Seema and Dharampal's daughter; Mahi, Renu, and Akash's sister; Chanda's sister-in-law (2021)
  • Coral Bhamra as Renu Sood (née Chopra): Deepak's wife; Seema and Dharampal's daughter; Mahi, Shalu, and Akash's sister (2021) (Dead)
  • Raj Khosla as Deepak Sood: Renu's husband (2021)
  • Arunim Mishra as Akash Chopra: Dharampal and Seema's son; Mahi, Shalu, and Renu's brother (2021)
  • Aakash Mansukhani as Arjun Rai: Mahi's ex-fiancé; Rai Sahab's grandson; Chanda's boyfriend (2021)
  • Sanatan Modi as Rai Sahab: Arjun's grandfather; Pankaj's Boss (2021) (Dead)
  • Kavita Banerjee as Chanda Sehgal: Pappuji's sister; Arjun's girlfriend (2021)
  • Manish Verma as Gulshan: Priya's ex-boyfriend (2021) (Shot by Pappu)



The series is filmed at the sets in Amritsar, Punjab.[6][7]


External links[edit]

The Regency era in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a period towards the end of the Georgian era, when King George III was deemed unfit to rule due to his illness and his son ruled as his proxy, as prince regent.Upon George III's death in 1820, the prince regent became King George IV.The terms Regency or Regency era can refer to various periods of …

The Regency era in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a period towards the end of the Georgian era, when King George III was deemed unfit to rule due to his illness and his son ruled as his proxy, as prince regent. Upon George III's death in 1820, the prince regent became King George IV. The terms Regency or Regency era can refer to various periods of time; some are longer than the formal Regency from 1811 to 1820. The period from 1795 to 1837, which includes the latter part of George III's reign and the reigns of his sons George IV and William IV, is sometimes regarded as the Regency era,[2] characterised by distinctive trends in British architecture, literature, fashions, politics, and culture.


The Regency is noted for its elegance and achievements in the fine arts and architecture. This era encompassed a time of great social, political, and economic change. War was waged with Napoleon and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally, as well as politics. However, despite the bloodshed and warfare, the Regency was also a period of great refinement and cultural achievement, which shaped and altered the societal structure of Britain as a whole.

One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent himself (the future George IV). Upper-class society flourished in a sort of mini-Renaissance of culture and refinement. As one of the greatest patrons of the arts, the Prince Regent ordered the costly building and refurbishing of the beautiful and exotic Brighton Pavilion, the ornate Carlton House, as well as many other public works and architecture (see John Nash, James Burton, and Decimus Burton). Naturally, this required dipping into the treasury, and the Regent, and later, the King's exuberance often outstripped his pocket, at the people's expense.[3]

Society during that period was considerably stratified. In many ways, there was a dark counterpart to the beautiful and fashionable sectors of England of this time. In the dingier, less affluent areas of London, thievery, womanising, gambling, the existence of rookeries, and constant drinking ran rampant.[4] The population boom—comprising an increase from just under a million in 1801 to one and a quarter million by 1820[4]—created a wild, roiling, volatile, and vibrant scene. According to Robert Southey, the difference between the strata of society was vast indeed:

The squalor that existed beneath the glamour and gloss of Regency society provided sharp contrast to the Prince Regent's social circle. Poverty was addressed only marginally. The formation of the Regency after the retirement of George III saw the end of a more pious and reserved society, and gave birth of a more frivolous, ostentatious one. This change was influenced by the Regent himself, who was kept entirely removed from the machinations of politics and military exploits. This did nothing to channel his energies in a more positive direction, thereby leaving him with the pursuit of pleasure as his only outlet, as well as his sole form of rebellion against what he saw as disapproval and censure in the form of his father.[5]

Driving these changes were not only money and rebellious pampered youth, but also significant technological advancements. In 1814, The Times adopted steam printing. By this method it could now print 1,100 sheets every hour, not 200 as before—a fivefold increase in production capability and demand.[6] This development brought about the rise of the wildly popular fashionable novels in which publishers spread the stories, rumours, and flaunting of the rich and aristocratic, not so secretly hinting at the specific identity of these individuals. The gap in the hierarchy of society was so great that those of the upper classes could be viewed by those below as wondrous and fantastical fiction, something entirely out of reach yet tangibly there.


George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales,[7] began his nine-year tenure as regent and became known as The Prince Regent. This sub-period of the Georgian era began the formal Regency. The Duke of Wellington held off the French at Fuentes de Oñoro and Albuhera in the Peninsular War. The Prince Regent held a fête at 9:00 p.m. 19 June 1811, at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Luddite uprisings. Glasgow weavers riot.
Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in the House of Commons. The final shipment of the Elgin Marbles arrived in England. Sarah Siddons retired from the stage. Shipping and territory disputes started the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States. The British were victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca. Gas company (Gas Light and Coke Company) founded. Charles Dickens, English writer and social critic of the Victorian era, was born on 7 February 1812.
Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen was published. William Hedley's Puffing Billy, an early steam locomotive, ran on smooth rails. Quaker prison reformer Elizabeth Fry started her ministry at Newgate Prison. Robert Southey became Poet Laureate.
Invasion of France by allies led to the Treaty of Paris, ended one of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to Elba. The Duke of Wellington was honoured at Burlington House in London. British soldiers burn the White House. Last River Thames Frost Fair was held, which was the last time the river froze. Gas lighting introduced in London streets.
Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon I of France defeated by the Seventh Coalition at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena. The English Corn Laws restricted corn imports. Sir Humphry Davy patented the miners' safety lamp. John Loudon Macadam's road construction method adopted.
Income tax abolished. A "year without a summer" followed a volcanic eruption in Indonesia. Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein. William Cobbett published his newspaper as a pamphlet. The British returned Indonesia to the Dutch. Regent's Canal, London, phase one of construction. Beau Brummell escaped his creditors by fleeing to France.
Antonin Carême created a spectacular feast for the Prince Regent at the Royal Pavilion in Brighton. The death of Princess Charlotte (the Prince Regent's daughter) from complications of childbirth changed obstetrical practices. Elgin Marbles shown at the British Museum. Captain Bligh died.
Queen Charlotte died at Kew. Manchester cotton spinners went on strike. Riot in Stanhope, County Durham between lead miners and the Bishop of Durham's men over Weardale game rights. Piccadilly Circus constructed in London. Frankenstein published. Emily Brontë born.
Peterloo Massacre. Princess Alexandrina Victoria (future Queen Victoria) was christened in Kensington Palace. Ivanhoe by Walter Scott was published. Sir Stamford Raffles, a British administrator, founded Singapore. First steam-propelled vessel (the SS Savannah) crossed the Atlantic and arrived in Liverpool from Savannah, Georgia.
Death of George III and the accession of The Prince Regent as George IV. The House of Lords passed a bill to grant George IV a divorce from Queen Caroline, but because of public pressure, the bill was dropped. John Constable began work on The Hay Wain. Cato Street Conspiracy failed. Royal Astronomical Society founded. Venus de Milo discovered.


The following is a list of places associated with the Regency era:[8]

Change in Bond Street, James Gillray

  • The Adelphi Theatre[9]
  • Almack's
  • Angelo's, a fencing parlor
  • Astley's Amphitheatre
  • Attingham Park[10]
  • Bath, Somerset[11]
  • Brighton Pavilion
  • Brighton and Hove
  • Brooks's
  • Burlington Arcade
  • Bury St Edmunds
  • Carlton House, London
  • Chapel Royal, St. James's
  • Cheltenham, Gloucestershire[12]
  • Circulating libraries, 1801–25[13]
  • Covent Garden
  • Custom Office, London Docks
  • Doncaster Races[14]
  • Drury Lane
  • Floris of London
  • Fortnum & Mason
  • Gretna Green[15]
  • Gentleman Jackson's Saloon, a pugilist's parlor by bare-knuckle champion John Jackson
  • Hatchard's
  • Little Theatre, Haymarket
  • Her Majesty's Theatre
  • Holland House
  • Houses of Parliament
  • Hyde Park, London
  • Jermyn Street
  • Kensington Gardens[16]
  • King of Clubs (Whig club)
  • List of London's gentlemen's clubs
  • Lloyd's of London
  • London Dock
  • London Institution
  • London Post Office[15]
  • Lyme Regis
  • Marshalsea, closed in 1811, new site opened in 1811 where White Lion Prison had been. Primarily a debtors' prison, also housed seditionists and political prisoners
  • Mayfair, London
  • Newgate Prison
  • Newmarket Racecourse
  • The Old Bailey
  • Old Bond Street
  • Opera House[17]
  • Pall Mall, London
  • The Pantheon
  • Ranelagh Gardens
  • Regent's Park
  • Regent Street
  • Royal Circus[17]
  • Royal Opera House
  • Royal Parks of London
  • Rundell and Bridge Jewellery firm
  • Savile Row
  • St George's, Hanover Square
  • St. James's
  • Sydney Gardens, Bath[16]
  • Temple of Concord, St. James's Park
  • Tattersalls
  • The Thames Tunnel
  • Tunbridge Wells
  • Vauxhall Gardens
  • West End of London
  • Watier's
  • White's

For more names see Newman (1997).[18]

  • Rudolph Ackermann
  • Arthur Aikin
  • Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth
  • William Arden, 2nd Baron Alvanley
  • Elizabeth Armistead
  • Jane Austen
  • Charles Babbage
  • Joseph Banks
  • Richard Barry, 7th Earl of Barrymore
  • William Blake
  • Beau Brummell
  • Mary Brunton
  • Lord Frederick Beauclerk
  • Henrietta Ponsonby, Countess of Bessborough
  • Marguerite Gardiner, Countess of Blessington
  • Bow Street Runners
  • Caroline of Brunswick
  • Frances Burney
  • James Burton
  • Decimus Burton
  • Lord Byron
  • George Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll
  • Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
  • George Canning
  • George Cayley
  • Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire
  • Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales
  • John Clare
  • William Cobbett
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • Patrick Colquhoun
  • John Constable
  • Elizabeth Conyngham, Marchioness Conyngham
  • Tom Cribb
  • George Cruikshank
  • John Dalton
  • Humphry Davy
  • John Disney
  • David Douglas
  • Maria Edgeworth
  • Pierce Egan
  • Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin
  • Grace Elliott
  • Maria Fitzherbert
  • Elizabeth Fry
  • David Garrick
  • George IV of the United Kingdom, Prince of Wales, Prince Regent then King
  • James Gillray
  • Frederick Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich
  • William Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville
  • Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
  • Emma, Lady Hamilton
  • William Harcourt, 3rd Earl Harcourt
  • William Hazlitt
  • William Hedley
  • Leigh Hunt
  • Isabella Ingram-Seymour-Conway, Marchioness of Hertford
  • John Jackson
  • Edward Jenner
  • Sarah, Countess of Jersey
  • Edmund Kean
  • John Keats
  • Lady Caroline Lamb
  • Charles Lamb
  • Emily Lamb, Countess Cowper
  • Sir Thomas Lawrence, PRA
  • Princess Lieven
  • Mary Linwood
  • Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool
  • Ada Byron Lovelace
  • John Loudon McAdam
  • Lord Melbourne
  • Hannah More
  • John Nash
  • Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
  • George Ormerod
  • Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey
  • Thomas Paine
  • John Palmer, Royal Mail
  • Sir Robert Peel
  • Spencer Perceval
  • William Pitt the Younger
  • Jane Porter
  • Hermann, Fürst von Pückler-Muskau
  • Thomas De Quincey
  • Thomas Raikes
  • Humphry Repton
  • Samuel Rogers
  • Thomas Rowlandson
  • James Sadler
  • Walter Scott
  • Richard "Conversation" Sharp
  • Martin Archer Shee
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley
  • Mary Shelley
  • Richard Brinsley Sheridan
  • Sarah Siddons
  • John Soane
  • Adam Sedgwick
  • Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
  • John Wedgwood
  • Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
  • Amelia Stewart, Viscountess Castlereagh
  • Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford
  • Joseph Mallord William Turner
  • Henry Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron Holland
  • Benjamin West
  • William Wilberforce
  • William Hyde Wollaston
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • William Wordsworth
  • Jeffry Wyattville
  • Thomas Young
  • Astley's Amphitheatre, 1808-1811

  • Carlton House, Pall Mall London.

  • Vauxhall Gardens, 1808–1811

  • Church of All Souls, architect John Nash, 1823

  • Regent's Canal, Limehouse, 1823

  • Frost Fair, Thames River, 1814

  • The Piccadilly entrance to the Burlington Arcade, 1819

  • Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales and Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, 1817

  • Morning dress, Ackermann, 1820

  • Water at Wentworth, Humphry Repton, 1752–1818

  • Hanover Square, Horwood Map, 1819

  • Almack's Assembly Room, 1805–1825

  • Drury Lane interior. 1808

  • Balloon ascent, James Sadler, 1811

  • The Anatomist, Thomas Rowlandson, 1811

  • Regent's Park, Schmollinger map, 1833

  • 100 Pall Mall, former location of National Gallery, 1824–1834

  • Cognocenti, Gillray Cartoon, 1801

  • Custom Office, London Docks, 1811-1843

  • Custom and Excise, London Docks, 1820

  • Assassination of Spencer Perceval, 1812

  • The pillory at Charing Cross, Ackermann's Microcosm of London, 1808–11

  • Covent Garden Theatre, 1827–28

  1. ^ Pryde, E. B. (23 February 1996). Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-521-56350-5.
  2. ^ Dabundo, Laura; Mazzeno, Laurence W.; Norton, Sue (2021). Jane Austen: A Companion. McFarland. p. 177. ISBN 9781476642383.
  3. ^ Parissien, Steven. (2001). George IV: Inspiration of the Regency. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 117.
  4. ^ a b Low, Donald A. (1999). The Regency Underworld. Gloucestershire: Sutton. p. x.
  5. ^ Smith p. 14.
  6. ^ Morgan, Marjorie. (1994). Manners, Morals, and Class in England, 1774–1859. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 34.
  7. ^ "George IV (r. 1820–1830)". The Royal Household. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  8. ^ * Gerald Newman, ed. (1997). Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714-1837: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780815303961.
  9. ^ Nelson, Alfred L.; Cross, Gilbert B. "The Adelphi Theatre, 1806–1900". Archived from the original on 8 June 2007.
  10. ^ "Attingham Park: History". National Trust. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  11. ^ "Roman, Regency and really nearby". 14 April 2006. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022 – via
  12. ^ StephanieSanders (6 December 2013). "Explore the Regency spa town of Cheltenham".
  13. ^ "Circulating Libraries, 1801–1825". Library History Database. Archived from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  14. ^ "Jane Austen: Sports". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  15. ^ a b "Jane Austen: Places". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  16. ^ a b "Jane Austen: Gardens". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  17. ^ a b "Jane Austen: Theatre". Jane's Bureau of Information. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  18. ^ Gerald Newman, ed. (1997). Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714-1837: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780815303961.
  19. ^ "British Journalists 1750–1820". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  20. ^ "Newspapers and publishers at dawn of 19th century". Georgian Index. Retrieved 12 April 2015.

  • Bowman, Peter James. The Fortune Hunter: A German Prince in Regency England. Oxford: Signal Books, 2010.
  • David, Saul. Prince of Pleasure The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1998.
  • Knafla, David, Crime, punishment, and reform in Europe, Greenwood Publishing, 2003
  • Lapp, Robert Keith. Contest for Cultural Authority – Hazlitt, Coleridge, and the Distresses of the Regency. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1999.
  • Marriott, J. A. R. England Since Waterloo (1913) online
  • Morgan, Marjorie. Manners, Morals, and Class in England, 1774–1859. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
  • Morrison, Robert. The Regency Years: During Which Jane Austen Writes, Napoleon Fights, Byron Makes Love, and Britain Becomes Modern. 2019, New York: W. W. Norton, London: Atlantic Books online review
  • Newman, Gerald, ed. (1997). Britain in the Hanoverian Age, 1714-1837: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780815303961. online review; 904pp; 1121 short articles on Britain by 250 experts
  • Parissien, Steven. George IV Inspiration of the Regency. New York: St. Martin's P, 2001.
  • Pilcher, Donald. The Regency Style: 1800–1830 (London: Batsford, 1947).
  • Rendell, Jane. The pursuit of pleasure: gender, space & architecture in Regency London (Bloomsbury, 2002).
  • Smith, E. A. George IV. (Yale UP, 1999).
  • Webb, R.K. Modern England: from the 18th century to the present (1968) online widely recommended university textbook
  • Wellesley, Lord Gerald. "Regency Furniture", The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 70, no. 410 (1937): 233–41.
  • White, R.J. Life in Regency England (Batsford, 1963).

Crime and punishment[edit]

  • Emsley, Clive. Crime and society in England: 1750-1900 (2013).
  • Innes, Joanna and John Styles. "The Crime Wave: Recent Writing on Crime and Criminal Justice in Eighteenth-Century England" Journal of British Studies 25#4 (1986), pp. 380–435 [ online.
  • Low, Donald A. The Regency Underworld. Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1999.
  • Morgan, Gwenda, and Peter Rushton. Rogues, Thieves And the Rule of Law: The Problem Of Law Enforcement In North-East England, 1718-1820 (2005).

Primary sources[edit]

  • Simond, Louis. Journal of a tour and residence in Great Britain, during the years 1810 and 1811 online

Sergei Kuzhugetovich Shoigu[1][a][b] (Russian: Сергей Кужугетович Шойгу; born 21 May 1955) is a Russian politician and army general who has served as the minister of defence of Russia since 2012.…

Sergei Kuzhugetovich Shoigu[1][a][b] (Russian: Сергей Кужугетович Шойгу; born 21 May 1955) is a Russian politician and army general who has served as the minister of defence of Russia since 2012. Shoigu has served as the chairman of the Council of Ministers of Defense of the Commonwealth of Independent States since 2012.[3][4]

Shoigu was the minister of emergency situations from 1991 to 2012. He briefly served as the governor of Moscow Oblast in 2012. A close confidant and ally of Vladimir Putin, Shoigu belongs to the siloviki of Putin's inner circle.[3][4]

Early life and education

Shoigu was born on 21 May 1955 in Chadan in the remote and impoverished Tuvan Autonomous Oblast to an ethnic Tuvan father, newspaper editor Kuzhuget Shoigu[c] (1921–2010) and a Ukrainian-born Russian mother, Alexandra Yakovlevna Shoigu (1924–2011), who was a member of the Tuva Regional Council of People's Deputies. Kuzhuget Shoigu rose to secretary of the Tuvan Regional Committee of the Communist Party,[5] becoming a major figure in the Communist power structure of the republic.[6]

After graduating from School No. 1 of Kyzyl city in the Tuvan ASSR,[7] Shoigu studied at the Krasnoyarsk Polytechnic Institute. Graduating in 1977 with a degree in civil engineering, Shoigu worked in construction projects nationwide for the next decade, advancing from low levels to become an executive. In 1988, Shoigu became a minor functionary in the Abakan branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and then in the Komsomol for a few years. In 1990, Shoigu moved to Moscow from Siberia, and was appointed deputy chairman of the State Architecture and Construction Committee of the Russian Federation,[8] assisted by his father's connections. Future President Boris Yeltsin had held a similar position in the Construction Committee, and also come from a civil engineering and party background, and Shoigu thus gained Yeltsin's trust.[6]

Minister of Emergency Situations (1991–2012)

Shoigu as Minister of Emergency Situations, 2002

In 1991, he was appointed by Yeltsin to head the newly established Russian Rescue Corps by Yeltsin, responsible for the rescue and disaster response system. The Rescue Corps replaced the previous Soviet civil defense system and soon absorbed the 20,000-strong militarized Civil Defense Troops of the Ministry of Defense, with Shoigu being appointed chairman of the State Committee of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergency Situations, and Disaster Response. Civil Defense remained a quasi-military organization in continuation of Soviet practice and Shoigu was politically involved, such as an unsuccessful attempt to evacuate Russian-backed Afghan President Mohammad Najibullah in 1992 and the intended distribution of weapons from the Civil Defense stocks to Yeltsin supporters during the October 1993 coup. In keeping with the militarized nature of Russian civil defense, Shoigu received the rank of major general in 1993,[9] and was promoted swiftly to lieutenant general in 1995,[10] colonel general in 1998,[11] and to army general, in practice the highest Russian military rank, in 2003.[12] The committee was renamed the Ministry of Emergency Situations (MChS) in 1994, making Shoigu a government minister. He became popular because of his hands-on management style and high visibility during emergency situations, such as floods, earthquakes and acts of terrorism.[6] Under Shoigu, the responsibilities of the ministry were expanded to take over the Russian State Fire Service in 2002, making the MChS Russia's third-largest force structure.[13]

In 1999 he became one of the leaders of the Russian pro-government party Unity, created by the Kremlin in opposition to the anti-Yeltsin elites of the Fatherland – All Russia alliance. Unity allowed for the rise of Vladimir Putin to President and in 2001 was combined into the ruling United Russia party, although Shoigu was the only delegate to vote against the merger.[6] Shoigu was awarded Russia's most prestigious state award – Hero of the Russian Federation – in 1999.

Governor of Moscow Oblast (2012)

With over twenty years of service as Minister of Emergency Situations, Shoigu established a close relationship with Vladimir Putin, and was rewarded by being appointed Governor of Moscow Oblast in 2012,[14] taking office on 11 May of that year.[15]

Minister of Defence (2012–present)

On 6 November 2012, Shoigu was appointed Minister of Defence by Putin, succeeding Anatoly Serdyukov, who had implemented sweeping reforms of the Russian Armed Forces in response to performance in the Russo-Georgian War. According to expert Sergey Smirnov, the so called "Petersburg group" of siloviki (Sergei Ivanov, Sergey Chemezov and Viktor Ivanov) had wanted one of its associates to succeed Serdyukov, but Putin was reluctant to strengthen the clan and opted for the neutral Shoigu.[16] Serdyukov was unpopular with senior military leaders and seen by them as a civilian with no military background, something that Shoigu addressed by symbolically tying himself to the military through wearing his army general uniform, reviving historical units dissolved under the reforms, and reinstating officials dismissed by Serdyukov. Furthermore, Shoigu appealed for support for reform within the army rather than taking a confrontational stance, appointed deputy ministers of defense from the military, and removed Serdyukov-appointed civilian tax service officials from the top echelons of the Ministry of Defense.[17]

As defence minister, Shoigu continued aspects of Serdyukov's attempts at modernizing the Russian Armed Forces through reform. This included the creation of the Special Operations Forces Command to facilitate rapid intervention in conflicts within the perceived Russian sphere of influence and counterterrorism efforts. Serdyukov's goals of increasing the share of the Russian Armed Forces made up of professional contract servicemen rather than conscripts continued under Shoigu. However, the demographic challenge of a decreasing pool of military-aged and -eligible males forced him to increase national conscription quotas in early 2013, including even North Caucasians perceived as a security risk by authorities such as Chechens. This followed on from Serdyukov's initiatives of reducing available draft exemptions.[17]

In November 2012, Shoigu decided to resurrect the tradition of Suvorov and Nakhimov cadets participating in the 9 May parade. In July 2013 Shoigu ordered commanders to begin every morning in the barracks with a rendition of the Russian anthem, to compile an obligatory military-patriotic book reading list and take the preparation of demob albums under their control.[18] In August that year he ordered to dress all Defense Ministry civilian workers, other staff and management employees in so-called "office suits".[19]

Shoigu at the 2014 Moscow Victory Day Parade

In February 2014, Shoigu said Russia was planning to sign agreements with Vietnam, Cuba, Venezuela, Nicaragua, the Seychelles, Singapore, and several other countries either to house permanent military bases and/or to house airplane refueling stations in those countries.[20] Since then, only an agreement with Vietnam has been effectively signed.[21]

In July 2014, Ukraine opened a criminal case against Shoigu. He was accused of helping to form "illegal military groups" in Eastern Ukraine who at the time fought against the Ukrainian army.[22]

On 30 September 2015, Russia began a military operation in Syria. The operation was carried out by the Russian Aerospace Forces, with the support of the Russian Navy.

Shoigu was reappointed as defence minister in 2018 (in the Medvedev second government) and in 2020 (in the Mishustin government).

Shoigu with Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu, October 2017
Shoigu holds a meeting with U.S. National Security Advisor John R. Bolton in Moscow in October 2018

As defence minister, Shoigu on multiple occasions accompanied Putin during weekend breaks that the pair would spend at undisclosed locations in the Siberian countryside.[23]

On 11 February 2022, Shoigu met UK Defense Secretary Ben Wallace. Shoigu denied that Russia was planning an invasion of Ukraine.[24]

On 24 February 2022, Russia launched a large-scale military invasion of Ukraine.[25] Shoigu said the purpose of the invasion "is to protect the Russian Federation from the military threat posed by Western countries, who are trying to use the Ukrainian people in the fight against our country."[26] The sources say the decision to invade Ukraine was made by Putin and a small group of war hawks in Putin's inner circle, including Sergei Shoigu and Putin's national security adviser Nikolai Patrushev.[27] In a 11 March video conference with Putin, Shoigu claimed that "everything is going to plan."[28]

On 13 May, U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin initiated a telephone conversation with Shoigu, the first call since 18 February. The call lasted about an hour with Austin urging an immediate ceasefire in Ukraine.[29][30]


On 23 February 2022, the European Union considered Shoigu responsible for actively supporting and implementing actions and policies that undermine and threaten the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine as well as the stability or security in Ukraine. Therefore the European Union added Shoigu to the list of natural and legal persons, entities and bodies set out in Annex I to Regulation (EU) No 269/2014.[31]

On 25 February 2022, following Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the United States added Shoigu to the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List.[32]

Personal life

According to The Siberian Times, Shoigu is known to speak eight languages other than Russian fluently, including English, Japanese, Chinese, Tuvan, and Turkish.[33][34]


Sergei Shoigu was born to Kuzhuget Sereevich Shoigu (1921–2010 and Alexandra Yakovlevna Shoigu (née Kudryavtseva, 1924–2011).[35] His father was born Shoigu Seree oglu Kuzhuget. His name order was changed because of a passport error, according to the Tuva official line. More likely, he Russified the name from the Turkic oglu "son of...")[citation needed] . Kuzhuget was an editor of a regional newspaper. He later worked in the Communist Party and for the Soviet authorities. He was the secretary of the Tuva Party Committee. He retired with the rank of first deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Tuva ASSR.[35]

Shoigu's father led the Tuvan State Archives. He spent six years as the editor of the newspaper Pravda. He wrote the novels Time and People, Feather of the Black Vulture (2001), Tannu Tuva: the Country of Lakes and Blue Rivers (2004).[35]

Shoigu's mother Alexandra was born in the village of Yakovlev in the Oryol Oblast. From there, shortly before the war, her family moved to Kadievka (now Stakhanov) in the Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine. A zootechnician, Alexandra was an Honored Worker of Agriculture of the Republic of Tuva. From 1979 she was the head of the Planning Department of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic. She was repeatedly elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet (parliament) of the Tuva ASSR.[36] Sergei's great uncle, Seren Kuzhuget, was the commander of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Army from 1929 to 1938.[37]

Sergei has two sisters, Larisa Kuzhugetovna Shoigu (1953–2021[38]), who was deputy of the State Duma, and Irina Zakharova (1960–), a psychiatrist.[39]

Shoigu married Irina Alexandrovna Shoigu (née Antipina). She is president of the business tourism company Expo-EM. They have two daughters, Yulia[40] (1977) and Ksenia (1991).[39] According to Alexei Navalny, Ksenia is suspected to be a figurehead of her father in the ownership of a palace in the outskirts of Moscow, valued at about £12 million. In 2012, the estate was transferred to the formal ownership of Yelena Antipina.[41] Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Ksenia posted a video on social media of her daughter and herself wearing the colours of the Ukrainian flag.[42]


Shoigu enjoys studying the history of Russia, especially Peter the Great's time and the era between 1812 and 1825 (which includes the French invasion of Russia and the Decembrist revolt).[43]

Shoigu is fond of sports and is a fan of the CSKA Moscow hockey team. He enjoys football and is a fan of Spartak Moscow. In March 2016, together with Sergey Lavrov, Shoigu presented the Russia People's Soccer League, with aims to unite fans of the sport from all over Russia.[citation needed]

Shoigu collects Indian, Chinese, and Japanese swords and daggers. He enjoys bard songs and plays the guitar. He does water color paintings and graphics. He enjoys collecting old pieces of wood, some of which he has shown to Putin.[44][45][46]


Shoigu stated in 2008 that he was baptized in the Russian Orthodox Church at the age of five, rebutting rumors that he was a practitioner of Shamanism or Buddhism like many Tuvans.[47]



  1. ^ Also transliterated as Shoygu; Russian: Сергей Кужугетович Шойгу, IPA: [sʲɪrˈɡʲej kʊʐʊˈɡʲetəvʲɪtɕ ʂɐjˈɡu]; Tuvan: Сергей Күжүгет оглу Шойгу, romanized: Sergey Kyzhyget oglu Shoygu, IPA: [siɾˈɡɛj kyʒyˈɣɛt ɔˈɣlu ʃɔjˈɣu].
  2. ^ The correct name should be Sergei Shoiguevich Kuzhuget as the Soviet official swapped the name of his father, Shoigu Kuzhuget to Kuzhuget Shoigu.[2]
  3. ^ Born Shoigu Kuzhuget, the Soviet officials swapped the name and surname.[2]


  1. ^ "Sergei Shoigu : Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation". Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  2. ^ a b Sher, Max (26 February 2021). "A Journey to the Center of Asia".
  3. ^ a b Seibt, Sébastian (4 March 2022). "Shoigu and Gerasimov: Masters of Putin's wars". France 24. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  4. ^ a b Kirby, Paul (3 March 2022). "Ukraine conflict: Who's in Putin's inner circle and running the war?". BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  5. ^ "В Москве прощаются с Александрой Шойгу". tuvaonline (in Russian). 14 November 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d Kaspe, Svyatoslav (20 September 2021). "The puzzle of Sergey Shoygu". GIS Reports. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  7. ^ "Первой школе Кызыла - 95 лет" [The first school of Kyzyl is 95 years old]. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
  8. ^ 0divider. "Сергей Шойгу · Биография" [Sergei Shoigu Biography]. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  9. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 26.04.1993 г. № 565". Президент России (in Russian). Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  10. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 05.05.1995 г. № 469". Президент России (in Russian). Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  11. ^ "Указ Президента Российской Федерации от 08.12.1998 г. № 1546". Президент России (in Russian). Retrieved 28 May 2022.
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  13. ^ Renz, Bettina (27 April 2018). Russia's Military Revival. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-5095-1618-6.
  14. ^ Shoigu Tipped as Next Moscow Region Governor, The Moscow Times.
  15. ^ "Murmansk Governor Out, New Moscow Region Governor In - News". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  16. ^ "Министр обороны Сергей Шойгу на новом посту рискует растерять свой высокий рейтинг" [Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu risks losing his high rating in his new post]. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
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The Jordanian dinar (Arabic: دينار أردني; code: JOD; unofficially abbreviated as JD) has been the currency of Jordan since 1950. The dinar is divided into 10 dirhams, 100 qirsh (also called piastres) or 1000 fulus.It is pegged to the US dollar. The Central Bank of Jordan commenced operations in 1964 and became the sole issuer of Jordanian currency, in place of the Jordan …

The Jordanian dinar (Arabic: دينار أردني; code: JOD; unofficially abbreviated as JD) has been the currency of Jordan since 1950. The dinar is divided into 10 dirhams, 100 qirsh (also called piastres) or 1000 fulus. It is pegged to the US dollar.

The Central Bank of Jordan commenced operations in 1964 and became the sole issuer of Jordanian currency, in place of the Jordan Currency Board.

The Jordanian dinar is also widely used in the West Bank alongside the Israeli shekel.[2][3]


In 1927, the British administration of the Palestinian Mandate established the Palestine Currency Board which issued the Palestine pound which was the official currency in both Mandatory Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan. Though Jordan became an independent kingdom on 25 May 1946, it continued to use the Palestinian pound for awhile. In 1949, it passed the Provisional Act No. 35 of 1949, which established the Jordan Currency Board as the sole authority in the kingdom entitled to issue Jordanian currency, called the Jordanian dinar. The Board was based in London and consisted of a president and four members, and began issuing Jordanian dinars in 1949 and was exchangeable for Palestinian pounds at parity.

After Jordan annexed the West Bank in April 1950, the dinar replaced the Palestinian pound. On 1 July 1950, the Jordanian dinar became the kingdom’s official currency and legal tender. The use of the Palestine pound ceased in the country on 30 September 1950. The Central Bank of Jordan was established in 1959 and took over note production in 1964. In 1967, Jordan lost control of the West Bank, but the Jordanian dinar continued to be used there. It continues to be widely used in the West Bank alongside the Israeli shekel.[2]


Coins were introduced in 1949 in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 fils. The first issue of 1 fils were mistakenly minted with the denomination given as "1 fil". 20 fils coins were minted until 1965, with 25 fils introduced in 1968 and 14 dinar coins in 1970. The 1 fils coin was last minted in 1985. In 1996, smaller 14 dinar coins were introduced alongside 12 and 1 dinar coins.

Until 1992, coins were denominated in Arabic using fils, qirsh, dirham and dinar but in English only in fils and dinar. Since 1992, the fils and dirham are no longer used in the Arabic and the English denominations are given in dinar and either qirsh or piastres.

  1. rub'a is Arabic for "piece of four" or "quarter".
  2. nusf is Arabic for "piece of two" or "half".


In 1949, banknotes were issued by the Jordan Currency Board in denominations of 12, 1, 5, 10 and 50 dinars. They bore the country's official name, "The Hashemite Kingdom of the Jordan".[4] 20 dinar notes were introduced in 1977, followed by 50 dinars in 1999. 12 dinar notes were replaced by coins in 1999.

Fixed exchange rate[edit]

Since October 23, 1995, the dinar has officially been pegged to the IMF's special drawing rights (SDRs), while in practice it was fixed at 1 U.S. dollar = 0.709 dinar most of the time, which is approximately 1 dinar = 1.41044 dollars.[6][7] The Central Bank buys U.S. dollars at 0.708 dinar per dollar, and sells U.S. dollars at 0.710 dinar per dollar.[8]

A sample exchange rate of Jordanian dinars to US dollars:

Year US Dollar =
1980 0.29 dinar
1985 0.39 dinar
1990 0.66 dinar
1995 0.70 dinar
2020 0.71 dinar

See also[edit]

  • Economy of Jordan
  • Economy of the Palestinian territories


External links[edit]

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