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Capitol Cliches (16) Conversational Currency (3) Great Moments in Capitol History (4) News (1,288) Budget and Economy (383) California History (139) ... The charismatic mayor of San …
Masks are mandatory at the state Capitol again after at least nine legislative staffers, four of them fully vaccinated, tested positive for COVID-19. ... Secretary of the Senate …
The crowds are coming in response to the coordinated efforts of three organizations, Real Impact, Capitol Resource Institute, and the California Family Council, …
Hours and Location. We are open 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, with evening and weekend services available by appointment. If you have any questions about becoming a …
So, a new era is starting in California state government, and its facilities won’t be cheap. Slated to be torn down is the “annex,” the east wing that was completed for .6 million …
California Capitol to reopen for visitors Starting Tuesday, June 15, the Capitol will be open to the public regardless if the Legislature is in session. But capacity will be limited …
The building serves as both a museum and the state’s working seat of government. Visitors to the Capitol can at once experience California’s rich history and witness the making of history through the modern lawmaking process. Find your representatives and visit their Capitol offices. California State Capitol 10th and L Streets Sacramento ...
The California State Capitol is the seat of the Government of California, located in Sacramento, the state capital of California.The building houses the chambers of the California State Legislature, made up of the Assembly and the Senate, along with the office of the governor of California.The Neoclassical structure, designed by Reuben S. Clark, was completed between …
Hours of Operation The Capitol is open in limited capacity. Weekends – CLOSED Weekdays – 9am – 5pm Note: Visitors must wear masks and enter through the North doors only. There are no tours being given, and the museum rooms are closed until further notice. The Capitol Park remains open daily. Tours The Capitol Museum is not giving tours yet.
Farm-To-Fork Capital With its proximity to local farms, Sacramento is at the forefront of fresh, seasonal cuisine sourced right from the city’s backyard California is undeniably the land of plenty—the largest agricultural producer in the country. And it doesn’t get much more farmer than the region surrounding Sacramento.
The capital city of California is Sacramento.
Sacramento is the capital of California State. The City of Sacramento is seat of Sacramento County, and is located in the northern part of California's vast Central Valley, known as Sacramento Valley. The city's current population of about 493,025, which ranks as California's sixth-largest city. Sacramento is the economic and cultural hub of the larger Sacramento metropolitan area.
History of the Capital of California
Native Americans left inadequate proof of their existence in the territory where they probably lived for thousands of years. The Sacrament Valley, as well as the Sacramento River, was named by Gabriel Moraga, a Spanish explorer who came upon the area in 1808. John Sutter, with aid from his exploration party, erected Sutter's Fort in 1840 and founded a Mexican colony named New Helvetia. The fort became popular with immigrants passing the valley, and in 1847 Sutter contracted James Marshall to construct a sawmill. The receipt of 2,000 fruit trees enabled Sutter to cultivate an agricultural industry in the region. The discovery of gold in 1848 boosted the settlement's population, and Sutter initiated the development of the City of Sacramento, which was incorporated on February 27, 1850, making it the state's oldest incorporated city. Chinese immigrants flocked to the city during the 1840s and 1850s and contributed to the city's labor pool. Sacramento became California's capital in 1850, a status which triggered the city's prosperity.
Geography of Sacramento
Sacramento sits on an area of 100.1 square miles. 2.19% of this total area is water, and the remaining 97.81% is land. Sacramento's location is strategically situated at the confluence of the Sacramento and American Rivers, and a channel via the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, which links the city's deep-water port to the San Francisco Bay. Most of the land located to the west of Sacramento is permanently reserved for an extensive flood control basin because of the city's historical susceptibility to floods.
Demographics of Sacramento
California's capital city is frequently ranked as one of the country's most diverse territories, and is recognized for its high racial and ethnic integration. The 2010 census reported a population of 466,488 and a racial makeup of white (45%), African American (14.6%), Asian (17.8%), Pacific Islander (1.4%), Native American (1.1%), and other races (12.3%). The Latino or Hispanic community of any race was 26.9% of the population, 22.6% had Mexican heritage, and 0.7% and 0.5% of the population had Puerto Rican and Salvadoran heritage, respectively. An LGBT population of about 10% makes Sacramento one of the top cities having the highest LGBT populations per capita in the nation.
Economy of Sacramento
The state of California and Sacramento County are the top employers in Sacramento City. The city’s health sector is another significant employer, and includes with institutions like UC Davis Health System, Sutter Health, Catholic Healthcare West, and Kaiser Permanente. Numerous companies operate in Sacramento, including Blue Diamond Growers, Intel, Teichert, Aerojet, and the McClatchy Company.
Government of Sacramento
Sacramento's government features the Sacramento City Counci,l complete with eight city council districts, in addition to the mayor of Sacramento. There are also many departments and appointed officials, including the city attorney and the city manager. Sacramento City is included as part of Sacramento County, whose government is characterized by a board of supervisors of five elected members, elected officials, such as the assessor and sheriff, and several entities and departments which are overseen by the county executive officer.
Though Senator Capitol Kitty passed away in 2004, her memory lives in. You can even visit her resting place near the south entrance of the State Capitol. 9. Within the California State Capitol building is a museum containing a collection of artworks such as paintings, sculptures, and murals.
Dr. Natalie Zaragoza is a licensed marriage and family therapist and part of the Frame Therapy community.
Home to intimate nightclubs, amphitheaters under the stars, and indie concert halls, here are the best California music venues to check out!
From yoga classes on the beach to SUP yoga in the harbor, here are some of the best outdoor yoga experiences in California.
Explore the diverse landscapes of the state on foot with the best walking tours in California.
State Capitol Catch a glimpse of government in action With its noble columns and snappy cupola, all painted wedding-cake white, California’s State Capitol building looks like a mini replica of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. Take a free docent-led tour to learn about the 1869 building’s architecture and history.
Pre-World War II photos of California’s Capitol depict a cylindrical appendage on the building’s eastern façade. Dubbed “the apse,” for many decades, it housed the California Supreme Court and the State Library, but the court decamped in 1923 for San Francisco.. The apse was destroyed in 1949 to make way for a rectangular — and downright ugly — annex that …
Sacramento Business Center | CA Capital Financial Development Corp. Business start-up and development assistance for small business owners, with a commitment to meet the unique needs of women entrepreneurs and women in business. WOMEN’S BUSINESS CENTER The California Capital PTAC helps. small businesses prepare for, pursue, and perform on ...
Sacramento, One of Many California Capitols. California did not have a permanent seat of government until 1854. Cities vied for the opportunity to house the state capital for the power, prestige, and economic benefit that accompanied it. Four capitol buildings existed in other cities before Sacramento became the permanent site.
Welcome to State Capitol Events Permits Website. The Department of the California Highway Patrol (CHP) is responsible for issuing permits. There is no cost for obtaining a permit and permits will be processed on a first-come first-served basis. The CHP does not provide any equipment for the events (PA System, Stage, etc.). Processing permits ...
History of the State Capitol Building. Shortly after the end of Mexican rule, Californians began to clamor for statehood. In 1849, a constitutional convention met at Colton Hall in Monterey and proposed a constitution, subsequently ratified by the people, which named San Jose as the first capital. In December 1849, the first Legislature ...
The Joint Rules Committee of the California State Legislature will oversee the construction of a State Capitol building annex or the restoration, rehabilitation or reconstruction of the current State Capitol Annex. Additional information regarding the State Capitol Annex Project may be found via the State Capitol Annex Project website.
916-324-0333. Building Hours: Weekdays: 8 a.m. – 6 p.m. Weekends: 9 a.m. – 5 p.m. Admission: Free. The tour office it located in basement Room B-27. Guided tours are offered 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. daily. The last tour of the day runs at 4:00 p.m. Please note that though the last tour is at 4:00, the office is open until 5:00.
15-01-2022 · State in the United States This article is about the U.S. state. For other uses, see California (disambiguation). State in the United States
Alex Padilla (D)U.S. House delegation
- 42 Democrats
- 11 Republicans
- English: 58.1%
- Spanish: 28.8%
- Other: 13.1%
- Fresh water: Golden trout
- Marine: Garibaldi
- Land: California grizzly bear (State animal)
- Marine: Gray whale
California is a state in the Western United States. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south. With over 39.5 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous and the third-largest U.S. state by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million.Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country (after New York City). Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. San Francisco, which is both a city and a county, is the second most densely populated major city in the country (after New York City) and the fifth most densely populated county in the country, behind four of New York City's five boroughs.
The economy of California, with a gross state product of .2 trillion as of 2019, is the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, it would be the 37th most populous country and the fifth largest economy as of 2020[update]. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies (trillion and trillion respectively as of 2020[update]), after the New York metropolitan area ( trillion). The San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita (6,757) among large primary statistical areas in 2018, and is home to five of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people.
Prior to European colonization, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America and contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico. European exploration in the 16th and 17th centuries led to the colonization of California by the Spanish Empire. In 1804, it was included in Alta California province within the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821, following its successful war for independence, but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850, following the Compromise of 1850. The California Gold Rush started in 1848 and led to dramatic social and demographic changes, including large-scale immigration into California, a worldwide economic boom, and the California genocide of indigenous people.
Notable contributions to popular culture, for example in entertainment and sports, have their origins in California. The state also has made noteworthy contributions in the fields of communication, information, innovation, environmentalism, economics, and politics. It is the home of Hollywood, the oldest and largest film industry in the world, which has had a profound effect on global entertainment. It is considered the origin of the hippie counterculture, beach and car culture, and the personal computer, among other innovations. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as the centers of the global technology and film industries, respectively. California's economy is very diverse: 58% of it is based on finance, government, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific, and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy,California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. California's ports and harbors handle about a third of all U.S. imports, most originating in Pacific Rim international trade.
The state's extremely diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast and metropolitan areas in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east, and from the redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well known for its warm Mediterranean climate and monsoon seasonal weather, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. All these factors lead to an enormous demand for water. Over time, droughts and wildfires have increased in frequency and become less seasonal and more year-round, further straining California's water security.
The Spaniards gave the name Las Californias to the peninsula of Baja California and to Alta California, the region that became the present-day state of California.
The name likely derived from the mythical island of California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. This work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadís de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It is possible the name California was meant to imply the island was a Caliphate.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California, very close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women without a single man among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with strong passionate hearts and great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks.— Chapter CLVII of The Adventures of Esplandián
Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal, Cali, Calif, Califas, and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during at least the last 13,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct ethnic groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups.
The first Europeans to explore the California coast were the members of a Spanish sailing expedition led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo; they entered San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542, and reached at least as far north as San Miguel Island. Privateer and explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579, landing north of the future city of San Francisco. The first Asians to set foot on what would be the United States occurred in 1587, when Filipino sailors arrived in Spanish ships at Morro Bay.[note 1]Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California in 1602 for New Spain, putting ashore in Monterey.
Despite the on-the-ground explorations of California in the 16th century, Rodríguez's idea of California as an island persisted. Such depictions appeared on many European maps well into the 18th century.
After the Portolà expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries led by Junipero Serra began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the coast of Alta (Upper) California, beginning in San Diego. During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts (presidios) and three small towns (pueblos). The San Francisco Mission grew into the city of San Francisco, and two of the pueblos grew into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. Several other smaller cities and towns also sprang up surrounding the various Spanish missions and pueblos, which remain to this day.
During this same period, sailors from the Russian Empire explored along the California coast and in 1812 established a trading post at Fort Ross. Russia's early 19th-century coastal settlements in California were positioned just north of the northernmost edge of the area of Spanish settlement in San Francisco Bay, and were the southernmost Russian settlements in North America. The Russian settlements associated with Fort Ross were spread from Point Arena to Tomales Bay.
In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence gave Mexico (including California) independence from Spain. For the next 25 years, Alta California remained as a remote, sparsely populated, northwestern administrative district of the newly independent country of Mexico. The missions, which controlled most of the best land in the state, were secularized by 1834 and became the property of the Mexican government. The governor granted many square leagues of land to others with political influence. These huge ranchos or cattle ranches emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios (Hispanics native of California) who traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants. Beef did not become a commodity until the 1849 California Gold Rush.
From the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States and the future Canada arrived in Northern California. These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts in and surrounding California.
The early government of the newly independent Mexico was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from 1831 onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both internal and with the central Mexican government. During this tumultuous political period Juan Bautista Alvarado was able to secure the governorship during 1836–1842. The military action which first brought Alvarado to power had momentarily declared California to be an independent state, and had been aided by Anglo-American residents of California, including Isaac Graham. In 1840, one hundred of those residents who did not have passports were arrested, leading to the Graham Affair, which was resolved in part with the intercession of Royal Navy officials.
One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh. After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States. Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, the soil, and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route". His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California. He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their obtaining passports.
After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh became involved in a military battle between the much-hated Mexican general, Manuel Micheltorena and the California governor he had replaced, Juan Bautista Alvarado. The armies of each met at the Battle of Providencia near Los Angeles. Marsh had been forced against his will to join Micheltorena's army. Ignoring his superiors, during the battle, he signaled the other side for a parley. There were many settlers from the United States fighting on both sides. He convinced these men that they had no reason to be fighting each other. As a result of Marsh's actions, they abandoned the fight, Micheltorena was defeated, and California-born Pio Pico was returned to the governorship. This paved the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States.
California Republic and conquest
In 1846, a group of American settlers in and around Sonoma rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt. Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma. The Republic's only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders.
The California Republic was short-lived; the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican–American War (1846–48). When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces. After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California.
Early American period
Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the annexed Mexican territory of Alta California soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah. The even more lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico. In 1846, the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,000, plus about 100,000 Native Americans, down from about 300,000 before Hispanic settlement in 1769.
In 1848, only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances. Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands. The population burgeoned with United States citizens, Europeans, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. By the time of California's application for statehood in 1850, the settler population of California had multiplied to 100,000. By 1854, more than 300,000 settlers had come. Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000. California was suddenly no longer a sparsely populated backwater, but seemingly overnight it had grown into a major population center.
The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from 1777 until 1845. Pio Pico, the last Mexican governor of Alta California, had briefly moved the capital to Los Angeles in 1845. The United States consulate had also been located in Monterey, under consul Thomas O. Larkin.
In 1849, a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey. Among the first tasks of the convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital. The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851). Subsequent locations included Vallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. The capital has been located in Sacramento since 1854 with only a short break in 1862 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento. Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the U.S. Congress for admission to statehood. On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California became a free state and September 9 a state holiday.
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), California sent gold shipments eastwards to Washington in support of the Union. However, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort. Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the "California 100 Company", due to a majority of their members being from California.
At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat. Nineteen years later, and seven years after it was greenlighted by President Lincoln, the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869. California was then reachable from the eastern States in a week's time.
Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.
In the nineteenth century, a large number of migrants from China traveled to the state as part of the Gold Rush or to seek work. Even though the Chinese proved indispensable in building the transcontinental railroad from California to Utah, perceived job competition with the Chinese led to anti-Chinese riots in the state, and eventually the US ended migration from China partially as a response to pressure from California with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity. Under its new American administration, California's harsh governmental policies towards its own indigenous people did not improve. As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers. Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. There were also massacres in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed.
Between 1850 and 1860, the California state government paid around 1.5 million dollars (some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal government) to hire militias whose purpose was to protect settlers from the indigenous populations. In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them. As a result, the rise of California was a calamity for the native inhabitants. Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California government as a genocide.
In the twentieth century, thousands of Japanese people migrated to the US and California specifically to attempt to purchase and own land in the state. However, the state in 1913 passed the Alien Land Act, excluding Asian immigrants from owning land. During World War II, Japanese Americans in California were interned in concentration camps such as at Tule Lake and Manzanar. In 2020, California officially apologized for this internment.
Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non-Hispanic white.
To meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California and Los Angeles Aqueducts; the Oroville and Shasta Dams; and the Bay and Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education.
Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s. California manufactured 8.7 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking third (behind New York and Michigan) among the 48 states. California however easily ranked first in production of military ships during the war (transport, cargo, [merchant ships] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships) at drydock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. After World War II, California's economy greatly expanded due to strong aerospace and defense industries, whose size decreased following the end of the Cold War.Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in California instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley. As a result of these efforts, California is regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology, engineering, and the aerospace industry, and as the United States center of agricultural production. Just before the Dot Com Bust, California had the fifth-largest economy in the world among nations. Yet since 1991, and starting in the late 1980s in Southern California, California has seen a net loss of domestic migrants in most years. This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus.
In the mid and late twentieth century, a number of race-related incidents occurred in the state. Tensions between police and African Americans, combined with unemployment and poverty in inner cities, led to violent riots, such as the 1965 Watts riots and 1992 Rodney King riots. California was also the hub of the Black Panther Party, a group known for arming African Americans to combat perceived racial injustice. Additionally, Mexican, Filipino, and other migrant farm workers rallied in the state around Cesar Chavez for better pay in the 1960s and 1970s.
During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S history.
Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued. The brown haze known as "smog" has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust.
An energy crisis in 2001 led to rolling blackouts, soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states. Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company came under heavy criticism.
Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase; a modest home which in the 1960s cost ,000 would cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005. More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties. Mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising. The bubble burst in 2007-8 as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended. Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many financial institutions and investors were badly hurt.
In the twenty-first century, droughts and frequent wildfires attributed to climate change have occurred in the state. From 2011 to 2017, a persistent drought was the worst in its recorded history. The 2018 wildfire season was the state's deadliest and most destructive.
California is the third-largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. California is one of the most geographically diverse states in the union and is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the ten southernmost counties, and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties. It is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east and northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and it shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California to the south (with which it makes up part of The Californias region of North America, alongside Baja California Sur).
In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland.
Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs. Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley.
Suisun Bay lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The water is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which flows into San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco Bay, which then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait.
The Channel Islands are located off the Southern coast, while the Farallon Islands lie west of San Francisco.
The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous 48 states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4,421 m). The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume.
To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. In the western part of the state is Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Although Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States.
The Tulare Lake was the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River. A remnant of Pleistocene-era Lake Corcoran, Tulare Lake dried up by the early 20th century after its tributary rivers were diverted for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses.
About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5,000 years old.
In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south-central desert is called the Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin at −279 feet (−85 m). The horizontal distance from the bottom of Death Valley to the top of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles (140 km). Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.
A majority of California's cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan area in Northern California; or the Los Angeles area, the Inland Empire, or the San Diego metropolitan area in Southern California. The Los Angeles Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California coast.
As part of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, the largest being the San Andreas Fault. About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt.
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Although most of the state has a Mediterranean climate, due to the state's large size the climate ranges from polar to subtropical. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers. The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent. Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast. The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas closer to the ocean.
Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.
California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest location in the world; the highest temperature in the world, 134 °F (56.7 °C), was recorded there on July 10, 1913. The lowest temperature in California was −45 °F (−43 °C) on January 20, 1937, in Boca.
The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not. This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka, the extreme heat of Death Valley, and the mountain climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevada.
|Mammoth Lakes||77/45||25/7||40/15||4/ −9||583/23|
California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is part of the Nearctic realm and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions.
California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus). Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (Ceanothus). Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.
Flora and fauna
California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California's native grasses are perennial plants. After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer.
Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert; upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.
Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica, the state flower) also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.
The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California laurel, sugar pine, madrona, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies.
The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine, red fir, and lodgepole pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 feet (3,200 m), begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, yellow columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star.
Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird's beak, McDonald's rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever. As of December 1997[update], 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered.
In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher, bushtit, and California condor.
In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well.
The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, mountain chickadee, hermit thrush, American dipper, and Townsend's solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the gray-crowned rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as Anna's hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker. Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. As of April 2003[update], the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow.
Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, golden, and cutthroat. Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.
As of April 2003[update], 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, loggerhead shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies are also endangered and two that are threatened are on the federal list. Among threatened animals are the coastal California gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southern sea otter, and northern spotted owl. California has a total of 290,821 acres (1,176.91 km2) of National Wildlife Refuges. As of September 2010[update], 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list. Also, as of the same year[update], 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.
The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley. The two rivers join in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, flowing into the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. Many major tributaries feed into the Sacramento–San Joaquin system, including the Pit River, Feather River and Tuolumne River.
The Klamath and Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California. The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona.
Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California. The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.
- Coastal California
- North Coast
- Greater Bay Area
- Central Coast
- South Coast
- Greater Los Angeles
- Greater San Diego
- Channel Islands
- Northern California
- Cascade Range
- Klamath Mountains
- North Coast
- Greater Sacramento
- Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
- Central California
- Greater Bay Area
- Northern Sierra
- Central California
- Greater Sacramento
- San Joaquin Valley
- Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta
- Central Coast
- Eastern California
- Central Sierra
- Inland Empire
- Southern California
- South Coast
- Greater Los Angeles
- Channel Islands
- Inland Empire
- Southern Border Region
- Greater San Diego–Tijuana
- Greater El Centro
- South Coast
|Sources: 1790–1990, 2000, 2010, 2020|
Chart does not include Indigenous population figures.
Studies indicate that the Native American
population in California in 1850 was close to 150,000
before declining to 15,000 by 1900.
The United States Census Bureau reports that the population of California was 39,538,223 on April 1, 2020, a 6.13% increase since the 2010 United States census. The population was projected to reach forty million by 2020.
Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths). During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people. The state of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009. However, according to the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, since 1990 almost 3.4 million Californians have moved to other states, with most leaving to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona. According to the Department of Finance, California's population declined by 182,083 people in 2020, the first time that there has been a net decrease in population since 1900.
Within the Western hemisphere California is the second most populous sub-national administrative entity (behind the state of São Paulo in Brazil) and third most populous sub-national entity of any kind outside Asia (in which wider category it also ranks behind England in the United Kingdom, which has no administrative functions). California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world. The Greater Los Angeles Area is the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area, while Los Angeles, with nearly half the population of New York City, is the second-largest city in the United States. Conversely, San Francisco, with nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, is the most densely populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the United States. Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states. Including Los Angeles, four of the top 20 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco (17th). The center of population of California is located four miles west-southwest of the city of Shafter, Kern County.[note 2]
As of 2018, the average life expectancy in California was 80.8 years, above the national average of 78.7, which is the second highest in the country.
Cities and towns
The state has 482 incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)".
Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850.San Jose, San Diego, and Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850.Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality, on July 1, 2011.
The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area.
Largest cities or towns in California
|1||Los Angeles||Los Angeles||3,898,747||11||Stockton||San Joaquin||320,804|
|2||San Diego||San Diego||1,386,932||12||Riverside||Riverside||314,998|
|3||San Jose||Santa Clara||1,013,240||13||Santa Ana||Orange||310,227|
|4||San Francisco||San Francisco||873,965||14||Irvine||Orange||307,670|
|5||Fresno||Fresno||542,107||15||Chula Vista||San Diego||275,487|
|7||Long Beach||Los Angeles||466,742||17||Santa Clarita||Los Angeles||228,673|
|8||Oakland||Alameda||440,646||18||San Bernardino||San Bernardino||222,101|
|CA Rank||U.S. Rank||Metropolitan statistical area||2020 Census||2010 Census||Change||Counties|
|1||2||Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA MSA||13,200,998||12,828,837||2.90%||Los Angeles, Orange|
|2||12||San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA MSA||4,749,008||4,335,391||9.54%||Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo|
|3||13||Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA MSA||4,599,839||4,224,851||8.88%||Riverside, San Bernardino|
|4||17||San Diego-Carlsbad, CA MSA||3,298,634||3,095,313||6.57%||San Diego|
|5||26||Sacramento–Roseville–Arden-Arcade, CA MSA||2,397,382||2,149,127||11.55%||El Dorado, Placer, Sacramento, Yolo|
|6||35||San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA MSA||2,000,468||1,836,911||8.90%||San Benito, Santa Clara|
|7||56||Fresno, CA MSA||1,008,654||930,450||8.40%||Fresno|
|8||62||Bakersfield, CA MSA||909,235||839,631||8.29%||Kern|
|9||70||Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA MSA||843,843||823,318||2.49%||Ventura|
|10||75||Stockton-Lodi, CA MSA||779,233||685,306||13.71%||San Joaquin|
|CA Rank||U.S. Rank||Combined statistical area||2020 Census||2010 Census||Change||Counties|
|1||2||Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area||18,644,680||17,877,006||4.29%||Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura|
|2||4||San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area||9,714,023||8,923,942||8.85%||Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Merced, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Joaquin, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus|
|3||23||Sacramento-Roseville, CA Combined Statistical Area||2,680,831||2,414,783||11.02%||El Dorado, Nevada, Placer, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo, Yuba|
|4||45||Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area||1,317,395||1,234,297||6.73%||Fresno, Kings, Madera|
|5||125||Redding-Red Bluff, CA Combined Statistical Area||247,984||240,686||3.03%||Shasta, Tehama|
Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population. Along with the rest of the United States, California's immigration pattern has also shifted over the course of the late 2000s to early 2010s. Immigration from Latin American countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants now coming from Asia. In total for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants. Fifty-seven percent came from Asian countries versus 22% from Latin American countries.Net immigration from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating. As a result, it is projected that Hispanic citizens will constitute 49% of the population by 2060, instead of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births.
The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers. The number of migrants arrested attempting to cross the Mexican border in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1 million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011. Despite these recent trends, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percent of the state's population, the third highest percentage of any state in the country,[note 3] totaling nearly 2.6 million. In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles, Monterey, San Benito, Imperial, and Napa Counties—the latter four of which have significant agricultural industries that depend on manual labor. More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico. The state of California and some California cities, including Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco, have adopted sanctuary policies.
Race and ethnicity
|Race and Ethnicity||Alone||Total|
|Hispanic or Latino[note 4]||—||39.4%||39.4|
|Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
|Some other race||0.7%||13.2%||16.8%||17.0%|
|Two or more races||–||–||4.8%||4.9%|
According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination):
- 72.1% White (including Hispanic Whites)
- 36.8% Non-Hispanic whites
- 15.3% Asian
- 6.5% Black or African American
- 1.6% Native American and Alaska Native
- 0.5% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
- 3.9% Two or more races
By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic or Latino (of any race). Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California.Non-Hispanic whites constituted 36.8% of the state's population.Californios are the Hispanic residents native to California, who make up the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in California since 1542, of varying Mexican American/Chicano, Criollo Spaniard, and Mestizo origin.
As of 2011[update], 75.1% of California's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white (white Hispanics are counted as minorities).
In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4 million, constituting a third of the nation's total. California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state.
According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60% of the state population. Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while Hispanic and Asian populations have grown. Between 1970 and 2011, non-Hispanic whites declined from 80% of the state's population to 40%, while Hispanics grew from 32% in 2000 to 38% in 2011. It is currently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49% of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration. With the decline of immigration from Latin America, Asian Americans now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India and the Philippines, respectively.
(as of 2016[update])
English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. In 2010, the Modern Language Association of America estimated that 57.02% (19,429,309) of California residents age 5 and older spoke only English at home, while 42.98% spoke another language at home. According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 73% of people who speak a language other than English at home are able to speak English "well" or "very well," while 9.8% of them could not speak English at all. Like most U.S. states (32 out of 50), California law enshrines English as its official language, and has done so since the passage of Proposition 63 by California voters. Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.
In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other state in the nation. New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than 100,000 persons. The most common language spoken besides English was Spanish, spoken by 28.46% (9,696,638) of the population. With Asia contributing most of California's new immigrants, California had the highest concentration nationwide of Vietnamese and Chinese speakers, the second highest concentration of Korean, and the third highest concentration of Tagalog speakers.
California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families. A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages among California farmworkers. All of California's indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization.[note 5]
As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century. This variety, known as California English, has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.
The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia.[failed verification]
California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.
The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.
Mass media and entertainment
Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major global center for entertainment, with the U.S. film industry's "Big Five" major film studios (Columbia, Disney, Paramount, Universal, and Warner Bros.) being based in or around the area.
The four major American television broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC) all have production facilities and offices in the state. All four, plus the two major Spanish-language networks (Telemundo and Univision) each have at least two owned-and-operated TV stations in California, one in Los Angeles and one in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several prominent internet media and social media companies, including three of the "Big Five" technology companies (Apple, Facebook, and Google) as well as other services such as Netflix, Pandora Radio, Twitter, Yahoo!, and YouTube.
One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS (AM) in the Bay Area, was founded in 1909. Universal Music Group, one of the "Big Four" record labels, is based in Santa Monica. California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound, Bay Area thrash metal, g-funk, nu metal, stoner rock, surf music, West Coast hip hop, and West Coast jazz.
|Religion in California (2014)|
The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent. Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 1% Muslim, 2% Hindu and 2% Buddhist. This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist. The American Jewish Year Book placed the total Jewish population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953.
The first priests to come to California were Catholic missionaries from Spain. Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California continues to have a large Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.
A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally.
California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises. San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 11 times at four different stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium. A twelfth, Super Bowl 50, was held at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara on February 7, 2016.
California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others.
California is the only U.S. state to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The 1932 and 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games. Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup took place in California, with the Rose Bowl hosting eight matches (including the final), while Stanford Stadium hosted six matches.
|Los Angeles Rams||American football||National Football League (NFL)|
|Los Angeles Chargers||American football||National Football League|
|San Francisco 49ers||American football||National Football League|
|Los Angeles Dodgers||Baseball||Major League Baseball (MLB)|
|Los Angeles Angels||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|Oakland Athletics||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|San Diego Padres||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|San Francisco Giants||Baseball||Major League Baseball|
|Golden State Warriors||Basketball||National Basketball Association (NBA)|
|Los Angeles Clippers||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Los Angeles Lakers||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Sacramento Kings||Basketball||National Basketball Association|
|Los Angeles Sparks||Basketball||Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)|
|Anaheim Ducks||Ice hockey||National Hockey League (NHL)|
|Los Angeles Kings||Ice hockey||National Hockey League|
|San Jose Sharks||Ice hockey||National Hockey League|
|Los Angeles Galaxy||Soccer||Major League Soccer (MLS)|
|San Jose Earthquakes||Soccer||Major League Soccer|
|Los Angeles Football Club||Soccer||Major League Soccer|
|LA Giltinis||Rugby union||Major League Rugby (MLR)|
|San Diego Legion||Rugby union||Major League Rugby|
Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grows with the economy and student enrollment figures.
In 2016, California's K–12 public school per-pupil spending was ranked 22nd in the nation (,500 per student vs. ,800 for the U.S. average).
For 2012, California's K–12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0.102 (the U.S. average was 0.137), while paying the 7th most per employee, ,000 (the U.S. average was ,000).
A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from overregulation.
California public postsecondary education is organized into three separate systems:
- The state's public research university system is the University of California (UC). As of fall 2011, the University of California had a combined student body of 234,464 students. There are ten UC campuses. Nine are general campuses offering both undergraduate and graduate programs which culminate in the award of bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctorates. There is one specialized campus, UC San Francisco, which is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health care, and is home to the UCSF Medical Center, the highest ranked hospital in California. The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of California high school students, but several of the campuses have become even more selective. The UC system historically held exclusive authority to award the doctorate, but this has since changed and CSU now has limited statutory authorization to award a handful of types of doctoral degrees independently of UC.
- The California State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000 students. The CSU (which takes the definite article in its abbreviated form, while UC does not) was originally intended to accept the top one-third of California high school students, but several of the campuses have become much more selective. The CSU was originally authorized to award only bachelor's and master's degrees, and could award the doctorate only as part of joint programs with UC or private universities. Since then, CSU has been granted the authority to independently award several doctoral degrees (in specific academic fields that do not intrude upon UC's traditional jurisdiction).
- The California Community Colleges system provides lower-division coursework culminating in the associate degree, as well as basic skills and workforce training culminating in various kinds of certificates. It is the largest network of higher education in the U.S., composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6 million.
California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.
California has twinning arrangements with the region of Catalonia in Spain and with the Province of Alberta in Canada.
California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. As of 2019[update], the gross state product (GSP) was .2 trillion (,600 per capita), the largest in the United States. California is responsible for one seventh of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP). As of 2018[update], California's nominal GDP is larger than all but four countries (the United States, China, Japan, and Germany). In terms of Purchasing power parity (PPP), it is larger than all but eight countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia). California's economy is larger than Africa and Australia and is almost as large as South America. The state recorded total, non-farm employment of 16,677,800 as of September 2021[update] among 966,224 employer establishments (as of 2019[update]).
The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing. California has an unemployment rate of 7.3% as of October 2021[update].
California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy. In 2008, California exported 4 billion worth of goods, up from 4 billion in 2007 and 7 billion in 2006. Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008.
Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from .3 billion in 1974 to nearly billion in 2004. This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production. In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated .2 billion products revenue. In 2011, that number grew to .5 billion products revenue. The Agriculture sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce. According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes.
Per capita GDP in 2007 was ,956, ranking eleventh in the nation.Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia. Using the supplemental poverty measure, California has a poverty rate of 23.5%, the highest of any state in the country. However, using the official measure the poverty rate was only 13.3% as of 2017. Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.
In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation. In 2010, California residents were ranked first among the states with the best average credit score of 754.
California GDP by sector in 2017
Had California been an independent country in 2018 its gross domestic product (Nominal) would have been ranked fifth in the world.
State spending increased from billion in 1998 to 7 billion in 2011. California, with 12% of the United States population, has one-third of the nation's welfare recipients. California has the third highest per capita spending on welfare among the states, as well as the highest spending on welfare at .67 billion. In January 2011, California's total debt was at least 5 billion. On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however the state's debt remains at 2 billion.
With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and Proposition 55 in 2016, California now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of
All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction. Property tax increases are capped at 2% annually or the rate of inflation (whichever is lower), per Proposition 13.
Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. However, because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States. Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46.
As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020. Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems facility are located in the Mojave Desert. California's wind farms include Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. The Tehachapi area is also where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located. Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power. It would be possible to convert the total supply to 100% renewable energy, including heating, cooling and mobility, by 2050.
The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation.
California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre, the latter having been shut down in 2013. More than 1,700 tons of radioactive waste are stored at San Onofre, which sits in an area where there is a record of past tsunamis. Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.[note 6] In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones.
California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States. The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first.
The state has been a pioneer in road construction. One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was the longest suspension bridge main span in the world at 4,200 feet (1,300 m) between 1937 (when it opened) and 1964. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet (23 m) wide by 58 feet (18 m) high. The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western United States. It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built.
Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), the 4th busiest airport in the world in 2018, and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), the 25th busiest airport in the world in 2018, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.
California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States.
The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10,000 employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property.
The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file. In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force.
Inter-city rail travel is provided by Amtrak California; the three routes, the Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner, and San Joaquin, are funded by Caltrans. These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records. The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route. Integrated subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (Metro Rail) and San Francisco (MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (ACE, BART, Caltrain, SMART), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster).
The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 800-mile (1,300 km) rail system. Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, with the first phase of construction estimated to cost .2 billion.
Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach.
California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over 40,000,000 acre-feet (49 km3) of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects. Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.
The California Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies. Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water."
Government and politics
The capital of California is located within Sacramento. The state is organized into three branches of government—the executive branch consisting of the governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. The state also allows ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. Before the passage of California Proposition 14 (2010), California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. After June 8, 2010, when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county central committee offices, all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party. At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation. If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held.
The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: lieutenant governor, attorney general, secretary of state, state controller, state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and state superintendent of public instruction. They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.
The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of six terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of three terms.
California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007.Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Oklahoma and Texas are far more active in carrying out executions).
California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1,600 judges (the federal system has only about 840). At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the chief justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one member from each house of the state legislature.
California is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards. In addition, the county serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas. Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors.
City and town governments
Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities. General-law municipalities owe their existence to state law and are consequently governed by it; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters. Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. Most small cities have a council–manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city. Some larger cities have a directly elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial. The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.
School districts and special districts
About 1,102 school districts, independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education. California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts.
There are about 3,400 special districts in California. A special district, defined by California Government Code § 16271(d) as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area. The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one service.
The state of California sends 53 members to the House of Representatives, the nation's largest congressional state delegation. Consequently, California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 55. The current speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California's 12th district, Nancy Pelosi;Kevin McCarthy, representing the state's 23rd district, is the House Minority Leader.
California is represented by U.S. senators Dianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Alex Padilla, a native and former secretary of state of California. Former U.S. senator Kamala Harris, a native, former district attorney from San Francisco, former attorney general of California, resigned on January 18, 2021, to assume her role as the current Vice President of the United States. In the 1992 U.S. Senate election, California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer. Set to follow the Vice President-Elect, Gov. Newsom appointed Secretary of State Alex Padilla to finish the rest of Harris's term which ends in 2022, Padilla has vowed to run for the full term in that election cycle. Padilla was sworn in on January 20, 2021, the same day as the Inauguration of President-Elect Joe Biden as well as Harris.
In California, as of 2009[update], the U.S. Department of Defense had a total of 117,806 active duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were Sailors or Marines, 18,339 were Airmen, and 11,097 were Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees. Additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reservists and Guardsman in California.
In 2010, Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military. However, as of 2002[update], Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population.
In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War). As of 2010[update], there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and just over four thousand served before World War II (the largest population of this group of any state).
California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps.
On August 5, 1950, a nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber carrying a nuclear bomb crashed shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. Brigadier General Robert F. Travis, command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead.
|Party||Number of Voters||Percentage||
Party registration by county
|No Party Preference||5,105,330||23.25%|
|Peace and Freedom||110,576||0.5%|
California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter. In socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. In the 2016 United States presidential election, California had the third highest percentage of Democratic votes behind the District of Columbia and Hawaii. In the 2020 United States presidential election, it had the 6th highest behind the District of Columbia, Vermont, Massachusetts, Maryland, and Hawaii. According to the Cook Political Report, California contains five of the 15 most Democratic congressional districts in the United States.
Among the political idiosyncrasies, California was the second state to recall their state governor, the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by vote (including Proposition 8 in 2008). Voters also passed Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund stem cell research, making California the second state to legalize stem cell research after New Jersey, and Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state's primary election process. California has also experienced disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. California voters have rejected affirmative action on multiple occasions, most recently in November 2020.
The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections. From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors. Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party.
Several political movements have advocated for Californian independence. The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both advocate for Californian independence along the lines of progressivism and civic nationalism. The Yes California movement attempted to organize an independence referendum via ballot initiative for 2019, which was then postponed.
The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate.
The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. From 1952 through 1988, California was a Republican leaning state, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with 1964 as the exception. Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.S. Presidents, respectively. However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last eight elections, starting in 1992.
In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States Congress in 2007. As the result of gerrymandering, the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive. In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. After the 2012 elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38–15 majority in the delegation. Following the 2018 midterm House elections, Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven.
In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County had remained largely Republican until the 2016 and 2018 elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates. One study ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities.
In February 2021, out of the 25,166,581 people eligible to vote, 22,154,304 people were registered to vote. Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats (10,228,144), Republicans (5,347,377), and No Party Preference (5,258,223).Los Angeles County had the largest number of registered Democrats (3,043,535) and Republicans (995,112) of any county in the state.
In a 2020 study, California was ranked as the 10th easiest state for citizens to vote in.
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- ^ Since 1565, Spanish galleons had been visiting Manila in the Philippines to make trade.
- ^ The coordinates of the center of population are at 35°29′28″N 119°20′52″W / 35.491035°N 119.347852°W / 35.491035; -119.347852.
- ^ Behind Nevada and Arizona.
- ^ Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and partial ancestry
- ^ The following are a list of the indigenous languages: Root languages of California: Athabaskan Family: Hupa, Mattole, Lassik, Wailaki, Sinkyone, Cahto, Tolowa, Nongatl, Wiyot, Chilula; Hokan Family: Pomo, Shasta, Karok, Chimiriko; Algonquian Family: Whilkut, Yurok; Yukian Family: Wappo; Penutian Family: Modok, Wintu, Nomlaki, Konkow, Maidu, Patwin, Nisenan, Miwok, Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Ohlone, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts, Foothill Yokuts; Hokan Family: Esselen, Salinan, Chumash, Ipai, Tipai, Yuma, Halchichoma, Mohave; Uto-Aztecan Family: Mono Paiute, Monache, Owens Valley Paiute, Tubatulabal, Panamint Shoshone, Kawaisu, Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Gabrielino, Juaneno, Luiseno, Cuipeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Chemehuevi
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| List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on September 9, 1850 (31st)
Coordinates: 37°N 120°W / 37°N 120°W / 37; -120 (State of California)
The state Legislature agreed and Sacramento County’s courthouse (located on the northwest corner of 7th and I streets) served as the Capitol from 1852 to 1854 (with a short recess to San Francisco in 1862 due to large-scale flooding). The Legislature apparently found the location acceptable because no plans were made to relocate to another city.
500 Church Street
Monterey, CA 93940
The San Carlos Cathedral is the last remaining structure from the Spanish Royal Presidio at Monterey, the Spanish and Mexican capital of California (1776–1846).
Named for the captain who raised the U.S. flag over the Monterey Custom House, Fort Mervine was the military capitol from 1846 to 1849. During that time, the Territory of California was governed by seven military governors, including John Drake Sloat, Robert Field Stockton, and John C. Fremont. While Stockton and Fremont both had California cities named in their honor, Sloat is commemorated by the Sloat Memorial, located down the hill from what remains of Fort Mervine. When completed, the fort measured 650 feet long and 400 feet wide. All that remains of the Fort Mervine site is a triangular earthen mound with five cannons pointing toward Monterey Bay.
Although Monterey was never a capital of the State of California, it served as the political and religious capital of Mexican California from 1781 to 1846, and remained the political center of California during the military occupation. In 1846, the first U.S. flag raised in California was in Monterey, and California’s military governors called Fort Mervine home during the years prior to statehood (1846–1849). When the first Constitutional Convention was held in 1849, it was Colton Hall in Monterey that was selected to host the 48 delegates for their six weeks of drafting the State Constitution. Even after the 1849 Constitution named San Jose as the first capital of the new state, it was made clear that if the new capital was insufficient, Colton Hall would be available to host legislative sessions.
In 1849, as California prepared for statehood, a convention was held at Monterey to write the constitution for the new state. Delegates were chosen in elections around the state and met for about six weeks starting in September 1849. A major debate at the convention was whether it was appropriate for the Constitutional Convention to prohibit slavery or whether that was a decision better left to the first legislature. In the end, the convention voted to settle the matter immediately, with Section 18 of Article I declaring, “Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crimes, shall ever be tolerated in this State.”
The 1849 Constitution set San Jose as the first state capital, and required Assembly members to be elected annually (state Senators were elected every two years). The constitution also established both English and Spanish as the official languages for the state and prohibited both dueling and the establishment of a state lottery. Spanish would remain an official state language until the second constitution of 1879, the prohibition on dueling was eventually lost to time (and formally repealed in the 1990s) and the state lottery was authorized by initiative in 1984.
The Monterey Custom House is where the American flag was first raised over California. The building is now a state park and is marked by several plaques. At that site in 1846, John Drake Sloat sent Captain William Mervine ashore to raise the U.S. flag at Monterey.
While in Monterey, also visit:
Monterey Custom House
Custom House Plaza
Monterey, CA 93940
The Monterey Custom House was the location where the American flag was first raised over California. The building is now a state park, and is marked by several plaques. At that site, in 1846, John Drake Sloat sent Captain William Mervine ashore to raise the U.S. flag at Monterey.
150 South Market Street
San Jose, CA 95113
Based on several historic maps, the location of the where the Capitol was in San Jose is now the entrance to the San Jose Fairmont Hotel. A small plaque (dedicated by the Native Sons of the Golden West) is located on the eastern side of Plaza de Cesar Chavez. A larger marker (dedicated by the State of California) is just north of the hotel. The Legislature first met on December 15, 1849, in the San Jose Capitol. The building was 60 feet long, 40 feet wide, and two stories high. The San Jose Capitol Building was destroyed by a fire in 1853. The location was covered by a large parking lot until the Fairmont Hotel was constructed on the site.
The California Supreme Court issued an 1854 decision that San Jose was the legal state capital. From April 1854 to January 1855, the state courts and court archive were located in San Jose. A January 1855 court decision reversed the earlier decision and declared that Sacramento was the legal capital of California. In 1893, E.C. Seymour introduced Senate Constitutional Amendment 23, which would move the state capital to San Jose. It passed the Senate 27 to 8 and the Assembly 57 to 7. The removal was challenged, and the Supreme Court overturned the law, on the basis that it was ineffective (because San Jose hadn’t yet officially donated land for the new capitol).
Having promised land and accommodations, Vallejo became the state capital on January 5, 1852. But when legislators arrived construction of the capitol had not been completed and the noise and lack of accommodations made work impossible. On January 12, 1852, the Legislature agreed to keep Vallejo as the permanent location of the Capitol, but moved to Sacramento for the duration of the 1852 legislative session. At the end of the session, the capital returned to Vallejo, where it remained until just after the start of the next year’s session. On February 11, 1853, the capital was moved to Benicia.
300 York Street
Vallejo, CA 94590
Vallejo was the state capitol for 12 days, from January 5 to January 16, 1852, before the state capitol was moved to Sacramento for the duration of the 1852 legislative session. At the end of the session, the Capital returned to Vallejo, where it remained until the beginning of the next year’s session. On January 4, 1853, the Capitol was moved to Benicia.
The 300 block of York Street is now covered by a parking lot for the Solano County Health and Social Services (whose street address is 201 Georgia Street). Based on a comparison of vintage maps and current satellite images of Vallejo, the former location of the capitol building is near the Santa Clara Street entrance to the Health and Social Services’ parking lot (south of Georgia Street).
115 West G St
Benicia, CA 94510
The Benicia Capitol (now the Benicia Capitol State Historic Park) is the large red brick building located on the northwest corner of 1st and G streets.
History: Built in 1852 as Benicia’s city hall, the site became California’s Capitol in 1853. The 1853 Session of the Legislature started on January 3, 1853, in Vallejo before moving to Benicia. The Legislature passed legislation to move the capital from Benicia to Sacramento a year later, on February 24, 1854. The location was deeded to the state in 1951 and became a State Historic Park in 1958. Also in 1958, the Legislature passed SCR 2, which returned the capital to Benicia for a single day on March 15, 1958. A second resolution, SCR 54, moved the capital to Benicia temporarily for sesquicentennial festivities on February 16, 2000.
651 I Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
Because of the difficulties establishing a permanent center of government in San Jose, Vallejo and Benicia, the City of Sacramento offered its courthouse to the state for use as a capitol. The state Legislature agreed and Sacramento County’s courthouse (located on the northwest corner of 7th and I streets) served as the Capitol from 1852 to 1854 (with a short recess to San Francisco in 1862 due to large-scale flooding). The Legislature apparently found the location acceptable because no plans were made to relocate to another city. However, about a month after the adjournment of the 1854 Legislature, on July 13, the wooden courthouse “along with a considerable portion of the city” was destroyed in a massive fire.
Sacramento II: State Capitol (1855–1869)
651 I Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
With the Legislature scheduled to meet again in Sacramento early the following year, the recently destroyed Sacramento County Courthouse was quickly rebuilt following the fire of 1854. Construction of the new courthouse (to serve temporarily as the Capitol) began on September 1854 and was finished in January 1855. The new courthouse was described as a two-story “classical, temple-styled building” with eight Ionic columns. The building was home to the Assembly and Senate chambers, offices for the clerks and legislative officers, as well as the State Controller and Treasurer.
Sacramento County Jail (in 2008)
Although designed with the Legislature in mind, the new structure was a little small for the growing state government. The building, although always viewed by both Sacramento and the state as a temporary home, served an important purpose by allowing the careful selection and orderly construction of the new Capitol without the rush that had characterized the earlier moves. The second Capitol at Sacramento continued to serve as the Capitol for 14 years, as the new state Capitol was being constructed six blocks away. In fact, it wasn’t until 1869, when the current Capitol building was occupied, that the Legislature moved. This site is now the location of the Sacramento County Jail.
In 1870, the building returned to use as the Sacramento County Courthouse. The building was redesigned in 1913, but remained a courthouse until 1965, when a new building opened nearby. The former courthouse was then leveled and the existing building, the Sacramento County Jail, was built in 1989.
A new marker was installed on June 27, 2007, that gives a good history of buildings that previously stood on the site. It replaced an earlier historical landmark that only noted the 1852–1854 tenure of the site.
550 Battery Street
San Francisco, CA 94111
As a result of heavy rains in late 1861 and early 1862, the Sacramento River overflowed its banks and the capital city was inundated. Facing significant difficulties if they remained in Sacramento, the Legislature moved temporarily to the Merchants’ Exchange Building in San Francisco. “Erected in 1854 for the Hong Kong trading house of Jardine and Matheson, this imposing, three-story structure, capped with a central dome, was done in the Palladian style of architecture. Statuary of an allegorical nature embellished the cornice.”1
At the conclusion of the 1862 session, the Legislature bid farewell to its temporary home and relocated again to Sacramento.
The Merchants Exchange Building didn’t survive the 1906 earthquake, and the new Richard Henry Dana Building was constructed in its place. A major source of confusion is the existence of a new Merchants Exchange, which was constructed in 1904, at 465 California St., six blocks away from the former Capitol.
1 California’s Legislature (2017) edition by Wilson and Ebbert
10th St & L St
Sacramento, CA 95814
The construction of the state Capitol began on September 24, 1860. The first work was excavation of the basement wall near M and 11th streets. The cornerstone, laid at the northeast corner of the building, was placed on May 15, 1861. Because the hill that the Capitol sits on had not been formed at the time, the cornerstone is now located approximately six feet underground. Most of the granite for the construction was mined from a quarry on the American River in Folsom on the grounds of the state prison. According to the State Capitol Museum, as construction continued through the first floor, the source of granite was changed from Folsom to Penryn (seven miles north of Folsom). On the exterior of the building, the darker granite is from the Folsom area; the lighter is from Penryn.
The offices of the governor and secretary of state opened for the first time on November 26, 1869. The gold-plated ball at the top of the cupola (240 feet above street level) was signed by the secretary of state on October 30, 1871. Construction finally finished in 1874. The rotunda was open to the public until about 1877, when Thomas Beck ordered it closed because of graffiti and “obscene and improper writing.”
Even at the turn of the century, the state Legislature was beginning to outgrow its home. In 1899, Secretary of State C.F. Curry authorized the conversion of the Capitol attic (until then used for storage) into a new fourth floor that would be used for office space. This space is occupied by committee rooms and the offices of the President pro Tem of the State Senate.
This work lessened the pressure to expand and further construction was delayed until the addition of the Capitol Annex in the 1940s. The groundbreaking for the Annex took place on June 3, 1949. The Apse, which had been home to the State Library for 80 years, was demolished in July and August, with the new structure quickly rising in its place. The Annex was completed, and the hallways connecting it to the “New Capitol” were opened at the end of 1951. Earl Warren became the first to occupy the new governor’s office on October 29, 1951.
The 2001 Truck Attack
On the evening of January 16, 2001, the south side of the State Capitol was severely damaged when a semitrailer smashed into a committee room. Shortly after 9 p.m., long-distance truck driver Mike Bowers took the downtown exit from Highway 99. At 9:22 p.m., the semi sped through a red light at N Street and, hopping the three-inch curb that rings Capitol Park, up the South Lawn and crashed into the South Portico. The fuel tanks burst into flames, starting a four-alarm fire that would burn for a half hour, filling the Capitol with smoke. Although most of the damage from the fire itself was contained to the area around the South Portico and Room 113, there was massive water and smoke damage to the southern half of the Capitol (including the Senate Chambers and Historic Governor’s Office). The restoration would eventually total million.
Capitol Park. Capitol Park is a beautiful and beloved treasure of California, listed in the National, California and Sacramento historic registers. The 40-acre park encompasses 10 city blocks surrounding the State Capitol. Bounded by N and L Streets and Tenth and Twelfth Streets, the original park grew to include six more city blocks by the 1880s.
California State Capitol. 10th St & L St, Sacramento, CA 95814. (916) 319-2021. Claim this business. (916) 319-2021. Directions.
Unlike other states, California taxes capital gains as normal income. They can range between 1% and 13.3% based on your income tax bracket. Learn more and how they can impact you.
Home of the California Legislature since 1869, the State Capitol underwent a major renovation that restored much of the building's original look. Visitors can tour the restored historic offices of the Secretary of State, Treasurer, and Governor of the State of California. The building features exhibits and tours - and possibly an opportunity to watch the legislators debate a bill or cast a …
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The "California State Capitol Annex Project Planning Study" by CSHQA is a historic and comprehensive analysis of the current deficiencies and future design goals for a revamped Capitol Annex. California's new Capitol Annex should convey to visitors California's positive and hope-filled outlook, founded upon the deliberative Democracy which ...
Hours - The Capitol Visitor Center is open to visitors from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through Saturday except for Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, New Year's Day and on Inauguration Day. Official Business - Visitors with official business appointments may enter the Visitor Center as early as 7:15 a.m.
California state lawmakers are considering a billion-dollar project to demolish and replace the 1950's annex on the East side of the Capitol building, which houses the …
26-11-2021 · The tree will be illuminated by approximately 14,000 ultra-low wattage LED lights and is being decorated with more than 300 traditional ornaments and approximately 500 hand-crafted ornaments made by children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. What: 90th Annual California State Capitol Tree Lighting Ceremony
SACRAMENTO – Governor Gavin Newsom and First Partner Jennifer Siebel Newsom will host the 90th Annual California State Capitol Tree Lighting Ceremony on Thursday, December 2, 2021.
The celebration, which dates back to the early 1930’s, will highlight California’s diverse holiday traditions, native heritage and spirit of inclusion.
Performers for this year’s celebrations will include program hosts Renel Brooks-Moon and Todd Leitz, announcers for the San Francisco Giants and Los Angeles Dodgers, respectively, as well as actress and singer Amber Riley, the Wilton Rancheria tribe, Oakland Interfaith Gospel Choir, SF Gay Men’s Chorus, mariachi singer Pedrito Fregoso, and rising R&B singer-songwriter and Sacramento Area Youth Speaks Poet Danielle “Yelly” Scales.
“After months apart, we are grateful to once again have the opportunity to safely gather and honor the many traditions of California’s diverse communities during the holiday season,” said Governor Newsom. “Let us celebrate the spirit of strength, hope and resilience that resides within us all.”
“The tree lighting ceremony is a beloved, time-honored tradition that offers us an opportunity to reflect on how far we’ve come as Californians,” said First Partner Siebel Newsom. “It is also an opportunity to reinvigorate the spirit of ‘me to we’ and our shared commitment to one another — especially those in need — this holiday season and beyond.”
The Governor and First Partner will light the State Capitol tree with special guest Hadiyyah Esmat. The six-year-old from Dublin, California was selected by the California Department of Developmental Services and the Regional Center of the East Bay, and will represent the more than 360,000 Californians living with intellectual and developmental disabilities. A first grader at John Green Elementary, Hadiyyah is very curious and loves to spend time in nature, enjoying activities like hiking and swimming. She loves to eat Afghan food, which her mother prepares at home during the holiday season. Family is most important to Hadiyyah, who will be joined at the Capitol by her mother, aunt, uncle, and cousin.
The 2021 State Capitol tree is a 65’ tall white fir from the LaTour Demonstration State Forest located near Redding in Shasta County, which is managed by CAL FIRE. The tree will be illuminated by approximately 14,000 ultra-low wattage LED lights and is being decorated with more than 300 traditional ornaments and approximately 500 hand-crafted ornaments made by children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
What: 90th Annual California State Capitol Tree Lighting Ceremony
When: Thursday, December 2, 2021. Program begins at 5:30 p.m.
Livestream: The event will be livestreamed on the California Governor’s Office YouTube, Twitter and Facebook accounts.
Broadcast: KCRA 3 will also broadcast this year’s event in the Sacramento region.
**NOTE: TV stations will be able to carry the Governor’s Office livestream.
California’s main Capitol building, built between 1860 and 1874, was refurbished in 1982 and reopened in a howling rainstorm. “A cake …
At California Capital, we treat each customer as an individual, not a number. We don't place you into a loan profile formula created by the banking industry. We use "common sense" and will help you obtain the best loan possible. We represent a wide range of "A" rated lenders with first quality rates to private "hardship" lenders.
Building Image Hours of Operation. The normal hours of the building are Monday through Friday, 7:30 am - 6:00 pm. Weekends from 9:00 am - 5:00 pm.
Following is a representation of the Assembly Daily File. A re-sorted version of this report will be found filed under each committee -- showing all dates posted for that committee. The Daily File is also available in PDF version. View the Assembly Televising Schedule for hearings and floor sessions
The Assembly has adjourned until Monday, May 2, 2022 at 1:00 p.m.
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Read third time and amended. Ordered to third reading. May be considered for passage on or after April 30 pursuant to Assembly Rule 69(d).
Regular Session Daily File
Monday, May 2, 2022
Budget Subcommittee No. 1 On
Health And Human Services [Edit]
ARAMBULA, Chair2:30 p.m. - State Capitol, Room 127
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Committees: Budget, Subcommittee No. 1 on Health and Human Services
Spring Finance Letters
We encourage the public to provide written testimony before the hearing. Pleasesend your written testimony to: [email protected] Please note that anywritten testimony submitted to the committee is considered public comment andmay be read into the record or reprinted. All are encouraged to watch the hearingfrom its live stream on the Assembly’s website athttps://www.assembly.ca.gov/todaysevents.
The hearing room will be open for attendance of this hearing. Any member of thepublic attending a hearing is strongly encouraged to wear a mask at all times whilein the building. The public may also participate in this hearing by telephone. Weencourage the public to monitor the committee’s website for updates.
Revenue And Taxation [Edit]
IRWIN, Chair2:30 p.m. - State Capitol, Room 126
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Committees: Revenue and Taxation
#2 California State Capitol Building Updated: 2020-04-01 The California State Capitol is home to the government of the USA state of California. The building houses the bicameral state legislature and the office of the governor. Located in Sacramento, the Neoclassical structure was completed between 1861 and 1874 at the west end of Capitol Park, which is framed by L Street to the …
Company Description: California Capital Insurance Company is located in Monterey, CA, United States and is part of the Insurance Carriers Industry. California Capital Insurance Company has 400 total employees across all of its locations and generates 2.59 million in sales (USD).
MESSAGE FOR TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF TOURS AT STATE CAPITOL In an effort to protect public health and the safety of our visitors, volunteers and staff as the state responds to the continued threat of COVID-19, California State Parks is temporarily suspending all guided tours at the California State Capitol Museum.
Capitol Protection Section (CPS) is the largest of the six commands assigned to Protective Services Division (PSD). The primary mission of CPS is to provide law enforcement and safety services to the occupants and visitors of the State Capitol building and grounds, as well as the hundreds of state facilities in the Downtown Sacramento region.
California State Capitol Museum. California is the most populous state in the United States, and you can wander the halls of government, seeing the Legislature in action, and visit the historic rooms of the Capitol, which showcase a moment in time from the early days of California's statehood.
Two National Guards stand guard on the steps of a government building across from the California Capitol in Sacramento, Calif. on Sunday, Jan. 17, 2021. Andri Tambunan/Special to SFGATE.
California’s Capitol and grounds are rich with exhibits of history and symbols conveying an understanding of the stature and significance of state government. The Capitol Annex Project, and specifically the Visitor Center, offers a chance to refresh some of these, highlighting their understanding of California government, and re-appropriating ...
General Assistance. Available 8 a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding state holidays. To get help on questions related to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) please use the California Department of Public Health's Questions and Comments form.; Email to get help with State services and programs or call 800-807-6755.
The California State Capitol building will reopen to the public starting next week, legislative leaders announced Friday. Menu. Sports. Kings. 49ers. Raiders. Sharks. SF …
Our State Capitol Museum volunteers are usually the first to greet these visitors. Often dressed in period attire, volunteers answer questions and discuss history with visitors. California State Capitol Museum volunteers give their time to share government history, lead historic room tours, greet visitors, interpret historic rooms and re-enact ...
California believes in the power of unlocking government data. We invite all to explore our Open Data Portal and create innovative solutions leveraging California’s data. Visit Open Data Portal
Million people as of July 2015
Largest Economy in the World
Million annual visitors
Million civilians in Labor Force
California has been hit with devastating wildfires and other natural disasters in both the northern and southern parts of the state. If you need more information about recovery or resources visit the following resources:Emergency Services Wild Fire Recovery Disaster Assistance
We invite all to explore our Open Data Portal and create innovative solutions leveraging California’s data.Visit Open Data Portal
California Capital Arts Foundation provides a safe, nurturing, and inclusive environment where an individual is free to develop his or her own artistic expression. We are passionate about instilling a life-long love for the arts that will enrich the lives of the residents of Rancho Cordova and the Sacramento region. We value the trust of our ...
But if California ended Sacramento’s status as its capital, the biggest winner might be Sacramento itself. The no-longer-capital city would …
The Unified Americans Convoy has two more permitted events this week, from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Tuesday and Wednesday. Both are also listed as rallies protesting COVID-19 mandates. Tuesday’s rally ...