American Racism in 2019
Sixty-five percent of Americans, with majorities across racial and ethnic lines, agree that racist or racially insensitive comments are more commonplace since Trump's election.
For recent research on how people feel about racial inequality in the US, click here. S For more on this topic, see "Amid National Reckoning, Americans Divided on Whether Increased Focus on Race Will Lead to Major Policy Change." ”
Despite the abolition of slavery in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment being in effect for more than 150 S Many adults believe that the historical position of African Americans in the United States is still influenced by the institution of slavery. Over 40% of respondents to a recent Pew Research Center survey agreed that the country has not made enough progress toward racial equality, and some expressed doubt that black people would ever achieve full legal parity with whites.
The current state of race relations and President Trump's handling of it are also met with disapproval. Six in ten U.S. citizens say racial tensions are getting worse. S are terrible, and most people do not expect any improvement A majority of Americans, 56%, believe that President Trump has made racial tensions worse, while only 15% say he has made progress on this issue. Almost as many, or 65%, believe that racist attitudes and comments have increased since Trump took office.
African-Americans, in particular, have a pessimistic view of the country's racial progress. Eight out of ten black adults, and 59% of black youth, agree that slavery's legacy has some bearing on blacks' current status in the United States. While the majority of whites believe that racial equality will be achieved in the United States, nearly eight in ten blacks say the country hasn't gone far enough in giving black people equal rights with whites.
The majority of Americans believe that blacks and Hispanics in the United States face discrimination. S Most adults agree that being black or Hispanic makes it more difficult to advance in life (56% and 51%, respectively). Contrarily, 59% of the population believes that whiteness aids success. There is a wider range of opinions on the effects of being Asian or Native American.
Whites are less likely to agree that being white helps people's chances of success than people of other races. Among whites, those who are more likely to see advantages to being white are those who have higher levels of education and who identify with or lean toward the Democratic Party.
The online survey of 6,637 adults, designed to be representative of the U.S. population, was conducted between January and March of 22-Feb On January 5th, 2019, the Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel polled the general public in both English and Spanish. The survey investigates not only how people generally feel about race relations and racial inequality in the United States, but also how they have personally been affected by discrimination based on their race or ethnicity. The following are among the most important conclusions drawn from the report:
More than four out of ten Americans believe it is now socially acceptable for people to express racist or racially insensitive views, and the majority of Americans agree.
A majority of Americans (65%), including majorities across racial and ethnic lines, believe that racist and insensitive speech has increased since Trump's election. Less than half, but still a sizable percentage, say this is now socially acceptable.
It is more common and acceptable for people to express racist and racially insensitive views since Trump was elected president, according to Democrats and those who lean Democratic. More than two-thirds of Democrats (68%) and a majority (64%) of independents believe this is now more common, while less than a quarter (22%) of Republicans share these views.
People are much less positive about Trump's approach to race relations than they were about Obama's.
Of all Americans, 56% believe Trump has made things worse for racial harmony, while only 15% believe he has improved race relations. Another 13% believe he has tried but failed to improve racial harmony, and 14% say he hasn't even addressed the issue. On the other hand, 37% of people believe that Barack Obama advanced racial harmony as president, while 27% believe that he tried but failed. One-fourth of the country believes Obama has exacerbated racial tensions. Almost all of the criticisms leveled at Obama's handling of racial tensions in retrospect were also leveled at Obama in his final year in office.
Political affiliation predictably correlates strongly with how one thinks Trump and Obama handled racial tensions. A large majority of Democrats, both black (79%) and white (86%), believe that Trump has made racial tensions worse. Republican opinion is more divided. Roughly one-third of Republicans (34%), including 20% who say he has made race relations worse, believe that Trump has improved race relations, while 25% say he has tried but failed to make progress. Additionally, 19% of Republicans say he hasn't addressed the issue at all.
Fifty-five percent of Democrats are of the opinion that Obama has improved race relations while in office, while only eight percent are of the opinion that he has made things worse. Republicans are divided on Obama's impact on race relations, with 51% saying he made things worse and 14% saying he actually helped. Similarly to their views on Trump, white and black Democrats have similar opinions on how Obama handled race relations as president.
When it comes to issues of race, Republicans and Democrats have very different perspectives.
Partisanship is strongly correlated with both racial attitudes in general and views of Trump's handling of race relations. After accounting for other variables, partisanship is a stronger predictor of optimism about the country's racial progress than age or education, though these are still important factors, especially among whites.
Gaps between Republicans and Democrats are often shown among whites in this report to account for differences in the racial composition of the two parties; this is done because whites and nonwhites often have vastly different views on racial issues, and nonwhites disproportionately identify with or lean to the Democratic Party.
When asked about whether or not the country has gone far enough in granting black people the same rights as whites, white Democrats are 64% more likely than white Republicans (15%) to say no. While 49% of Republicans feel that the country has gone about the right amount, 31% feel that it has gone too far.
A majority of black Republicans - versus Almost half of white Republicans (40%) believe that slavery's historical legacy still affects black Americans' place in society. And in terms of perspectives on racial discrimination, 78% of white Democrats believe that people not seeing it where it really does exist is the bigger problem, whereas a similar share of white Republicans believe that people seeing racial discrimination where it really does not exist is the bigger problem.
More than half of black adults (52%), and 18% of all adults, say that their race has impeded their success to some degree. Hispanics (24%) and Asians (24%), but only 5% of whites, report that they have been negatively impacted by their racial or ethnic background. As a result, whites are more likely than other groups to claim that their race has helped them in some way.
Blacks with some college experience are more likely than their less-educated counterparts to say that racism has impeded their success.
White people's views on how their race has affected their chances of success are correlated with how much schooling they have received. While a minority of whites at every level of education believe their race has held them back professionally, those with a four-year college degree or higher are more likely than those with a high school diploma or lower to believe their race has aided in their success.
Hard work is cited by more people of all races and ethnicities than any other factor, including race, gender, connections, and family wealth.
About two-thirds of blacks (68%) say being black generally hurts a person's ability to get ahead in the country, while 55% of whites say the same.
Compared to whites, blacks are much more likely to cite racial discrimination, a lack of access to high-paying jobs, and subpar educational opportunities as major reasons why being black hinders one's chances of succeeding in life. When asked about the challenges black people face, whites are more likely to cite issues related to family instability and a dearth of positive role models. Two-fifths of each demographic cite a lack of drive as a contributing factor.
Extreme partisan divides exist in these opinions. Seventy percent of white Democrats who agree that being black is a hindrance to success cite racial discrimination, and seventy-five percent blame a lack of access to quality education and high-paying employment (64% of black Democrats agree). Comparatively, only a minority of white Republicans (under a third) believe these to be significant challenges for blacks. Conservative whites are more likely to blame problems at home, a lack of positive role models, and a lack of ambition when asked why they vote Republican.
Both black and white adults agree that minorities receive unequal treatment from law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
While adults of both races have vastly different views on how black people are treated in America, the vast majority of both races agree that the criminal justice system treats black people more unfairly than it treats white people. and when interacting with police (84% vs. 61% of whites). (Each at 63%, in turn)
Sixty percent or more of blacks, but fewer than half of whites, say that blacks are treated less fairly than whites in a variety of contexts, including but not limited to: hiring, pay, promotions; applying for loans or mortgages; shopping, dining out, voting, and receiving medical care. For the most part, whites believe that blacks and whites are treated fairly equally in each of these areas, with only a small minority holding the view that whites are treated less fairly than blacks.
Disagreements between white Democrats and white Republicans on how blacks are treated in the United States range from 39 to 53 percentage points across these categories. S In a poll, 88% of white Democrats said that black people are treated less fairly by police than white people. the government (43% vs. 86% of white Republicans); the legal system 72% vs. 39% in terms of hiring/pay/promotions; Mortgage and loan applications (64% vs. 21%); 62% vs. 17% online); in retail establishments or eating establishments; For example, when deciding how to vote in an election (60% vs. When deciding to see a doctor (48% vs. 9%)
While there is some agreement between black and white Democrats on some of these issues, a significantly higher percentage of black Democrats believe that black people are treated less fairly than whites in the following areas: employment (86%), loan/mortgage applications (78%), retail/restaurant (73%), and medical care (61%).
Seven out of ten Americans S One in three adults say they believe it is never okay for a white person to use the N-word, while 3% say it is always okay and 6% say it is okay sometimes. About seven out of ten people of both races say that this is never acceptable.
A majority of white people (72%) say it's never acceptable for a white person to use the N-word, while a majority of Hispanic people (58%), especially those born outside of the United States (28%), are unsure. Among U.S.-born Hispanics, there is a S 67% say that this is never acceptable
About 40% of adults, including about the same percentage of blacks and whites, say they have heard a black person use the N-word in the past year. consider it always unacceptable, 13% say occasionally acceptable, and 20% say it's acceptable for black people to use the N-word.
The majority of black adults rate the significance of their race as either "extremely" or "very."
For African-Americans, racial identity is more central than it is for Hispanics, Asians, or whites. Black adults (75%) place a high value on their race (52%), while Hispanics (59%) and Asians (56%) place a similar value on theirs. Approximately 30% of both groups consider it crucial. Whereas 1 in 6 people of color identify as "very important" or "extremely important" to their sense of self, only 1 in 6 people of white identity share these sentiments.
A smaller percentage of whites and blacks under the age of 30 than their elders report that their racial background is at least somewhat central to who they are as people. Sixty-four percent of black adults ages 18 to 29 place at least moderate importance on being black, whereas three quarters or more of those in older age groups hold this view. Moreover, whites under the age of 30 are the least likely of all whites to say that being white is an essential part of who they are.
Foreign-born Hispanics are more likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to be undocumented immigrants. S the majority identify as Hispanic and consider their heritage to be at least somewhat significant to their sense of self (65% vs. 52%)
Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians all report higher rates of discrimination than other racial and ethnic groups.
Almost three-quarters of people of African descent (76%), people of Asian descent (76%), and people of Hispanic descent (58%), all say they have been discriminated against or treated unfairly because of their race or ethnicity at some point in their lives. Whites are more likely to report never having experienced this (67% vs. 33%, respectively).
The likelihood that a black person will report having experienced discrimination because of their race or ethnicity is significantly higher than that of a white person when both groups are asked about similar experiences. Minority groups, such as Hispanics and Asians, are more likely to report experiencing bias in the workplace, including discrimination in hiring, salary, and promotion, as well as harassment from law enforcement. More people of Hispanic and Asian descent than whites report experiencing each of these.
One study found that Asians were more likely than any other group to report experiencing racial or ethnic slurs or jokes. In turn, 45% of whites have experienced others making assumptions about their biases or racism, higher than the percentages reported by people of color (whether black, Hispanic, or Asian).
Using a modified version of the Massey-Martin scale, respondents of African-American and Hispanic descent were asked to select the skin tone that most closely matched their own. According to a statistical analysis of many factors, Hispanics of darker skin tones are more likely to report having experienced discrimination or unfair treatment on the basis of their race or ethnicity than those of lighter skin tones. Hispanics with darker skin tones are more likely to report that others have treated them suspiciously or as if they were less intelligent because of their race or ethnicity. they have experienced discrimination in the workplace, have been the target of slurs and jokes, and have been afraid for their safety.
Darker-skinned African-Americans are more likely to report experiencing racial discrimination in general, but this may not be indicative of having dealt with more specific forms of bias. For blacks, the specific forms of discrimination asked about in the survey are more consistently associated with being male and having higher levels of education.
Remarks on the Asian sample
There are 332 Asians in the sample, making up the survey's oversample. Since only Asians fluent in English are included in the sample, it may not be a true representation of the U.S. S Compared to 78% of the U.S. population, 66% of our weighted Asian sample was born abroad. S Total adult population in Asia who are Asian
Despite this caveat, reporting Asians' perspectives on race relations, racial inequality, and discrimination is crucial, especially in the United States. S Population growth among Asians is outpacing that of all other major groups. Understanding the current state of race relations in the United States requires a thorough examination of the perspectives of Asian Americans.
Data are weighted to be representative of the U.S. population as a whole, and Asian responses are included wherever possible throughout the report. S Generalized adult population When the survey asked about all respondents, Asians were broken out to show how they compare. Results for questions asked of only half of respondents (Form 1/Form 2) or some filtered questions are not shown separately for Asians due to the relatively small sample size and a reduction in precision due to weighting. The demographic breakdown of Asian respondents by age, education, or marital status is also beyond our capabilities.
Only non-Hispanic people who identify with only one of these races are included in discussions of "whites," "blacks," and "Asians." Hispanics can be any ethnicity.
Those who identify as Republicans are considered to include independents who say they lean toward the Republican Party, and those who identify as Democrats are considered to include both self-identified Democrats and independents who say they lean toward the Democratic Party.
For the purposes of this article, the term "college graduate" refers to anyone who has earned a bachelor's degree or higher. Included in the category of "some college" are both those with an associate degree and those who attended college but did not graduate. People with a high school diploma or its equivalent, such as a General Educational Development (GED), are considered "high school graduates."
People born outside of the United States, Puerto Rico, or other U.S. S countries or territories to parents who were not citizens of the S citizen, irrespective of immigration status
U S persons of the United States of America S Those who were born in the United States, Puerto Rico, or any of the other U. S people born outside of U.S. territories to parents who were U.S. S citizens
To fix a mistake in the report's labeling of Asian respondents, Estimates for Asians in this updated report are based solely on the responses of 332 people who identified themselves as Asian or Asian American. Previously, the report's Asian estimates were based on 355 respondents, which correctly included the 332 single-race Asian respondents but also included the 23 respondents who identified as Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander or both Asian and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. The study's main findings were not changed by this amendment. Among Asians, there was a one- to three-point shift in some estimates.
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