The building serves as both a museum and the state’s working seat of government. Visitors to the Capitol can at once experience California’s rich history and witness the making of history through the modern lawmaking process. Find your representatives and visit their Capitol offices. California State Capitol 10th and L Streets Sacramento ...
Sacramento is the capital of California State. The City of Sacramento is seat of Sacramento County, and is located in the northern part of California's vast Central Valley, known as Sacramento Valley. The city's current population of about 493,025, which ranks as California's sixth-largest city. Sacramento is the economic and cultural hub of the larger Sacramento metropolitan area.
History of the Capital of California
Native Americans left inadequate proof of their existence in the territory where they probably lived for thousands of years. The Sacrament Valley, as well as the Sacramento River, was named by Gabriel Moraga, a Spanish explorer who came upon the area in 1808. John Sutter, with aid from his exploration party, erected Sutter's Fort in 1840 and founded a Mexican colony named New Helvetia. The fort became popular with immigrants passing the valley, and in 1847 Sutter contracted James Marshall to construct a sawmill. The receipt of 2,000 fruit trees enabled Sutter to cultivate an agricultural industry in the region. The discovery of gold in 1848 boosted the settlement's population, and Sutter initiated the development of the City of Sacramento, which was incorporated on February 27, 1850, making it the state's oldest incorporated city. Chinese immigrants flocked to the city during the 1840s and 1850s and contributed to the city's labor pool. Sacramento became California's capital in 1850, a status which triggered the city's prosperity.
Geography of Sacramento
Sacramento sits on an area of 100.1 square miles. 2.19% of this total area is water, and the remaining 97.81% is land. Sacramento's location is strategically situated at the confluence of the Sacramento and American Rivers, and a channel via the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, which links the city's deep-water port to the San Francisco Bay. Most of the land located to the west of Sacramento is permanently reserved for an extensive flood control basin because of the city's historical susceptibility to floods.
Demographics of Sacramento
California's capital city is frequently ranked as one of the country's most diverse territories, and is recognized for its high racial and ethnic integration. The 2010 census reported a population of 466,488 and a racial makeup of white (45%), African American (14.6%), Asian (17.8%), Pacific Islander (1.4%), Native American (1.1%), and other races (12.3%). The Latino or Hispanic community of any race was 26.9% of the population, 22.6% had Mexican heritage, and 0.7% and 0.5% of the population had Puerto Rican and Salvadoran heritage, respectively. An LGBT population of about 10% makes Sacramento one of the top cities having the highest LGBT populations per capita in the nation.
Economy of Sacramento
The state of California and Sacramento County are the top employers in Sacramento City. The city’s health sector is another significant employer, and includes with institutions like UC Davis Health System, Sutter Health, Catholic Healthcare West, and Kaiser Permanente. Numerous companies operate in Sacramento, including Blue Diamond Growers, Intel, Teichert, Aerojet, and the McClatchy Company.
Government of Sacramento
Sacramento's government features the Sacramento City Counci,l complete with eight city council districts, in addition to the mayor of Sacramento. There are also many departments and appointed officials, including the city attorney and the city manager. Sacramento City is included as part of Sacramento County, whose government is characterized by a board of supervisors of five elected members, elected officials, such as the assessor and sheriff, and several entities and departments which are overseen by the county executive officer.
The state Legislature agreed and Sacramento County’s courthouse (located on the northwest corner of 7th and I streets) served as the Capitol from 1852 to 1854 (with a short recess to San Francisco in 1862 due to large-scale flooding). The Legislature apparently found the location acceptable because no plans were made to relocate to another city.
500 Church Street Monterey, CA 93940
The San Carlos Cathedral is the last remaining structure from the Spanish Royal Presidio at Monterey, the Spanish and Mexican capital of California (1776–1846).
Named for the captain who raised the U.S. flag over the Monterey Custom House, Fort Mervine was the military capitol from 1846 to 1849. During that time, the Territory of California was governed by seven military governors, including John Drake Sloat, Robert Field Stockton, and John C. Fremont. While Stockton and Fremont both had California cities named in their honor, Sloat is commemorated by the Sloat Memorial, located down the hill from what remains of Fort Mervine. When completed, the fort measured 650 feet long and 400 feet wide. All that remains of the Fort Mervine site is a triangular earthen mound with five cannons pointing toward Monterey Bay.
Although Monterey was never a capital of the State of California, it served as the political and religious capital of Mexican California from 1781 to 1846, and remained the political center of California during the military occupation. In 1846, the first U.S. flag raised in California was in Monterey, and California’s military governors called Fort Mervine home during the years prior to statehood (1846–1849). When the first Constitutional Convention was held in 1849, it was Colton Hall in Monterey that was selected to host the 48 delegates for their six weeks of drafting the State Constitution. Even after the 1849 Constitution named San Jose as the first capital of the new state, it was made clear that if the new capital was insufficient, Colton Hall would be available to host legislative sessions.
In 1849, as California prepared for statehood, a convention was held at Monterey to write the constitution for the new state. Delegates were chosen in elections around the state and met for about six weeks starting in September 1849. A major debate at the convention was whether it was appropriate for the Constitutional Convention to prohibit slavery or whether that was a decision better left to the first legislature. In the end, the convention voted to settle the matter immediately, with Section 18 of Article I declaring, “Neither slavery, nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crimes, shall ever be tolerated in this State.”
The 1849 Constitution set San Jose as the first state capital, and required Assembly members to be elected annually (state Senators were elected every two years). The constitution also established both English and Spanish as the official languages for the state and prohibited both dueling and the establishment of a state lottery. Spanish would remain an official state language until the second constitution of 1879, the prohibition on dueling was eventually lost to time (and formally repealed in the 1990s) and the state lottery was authorized by initiative in 1984.
The Monterey Custom House is where the American flag was first raised over California. The building is now a state park and is marked by several plaques. At that site in 1846, John Drake Sloat sent Captain William Mervine ashore to raise the U.S. flag at Monterey.
While in Monterey, also visit:
Monterey Custom House
Custom House Plaza Monterey, CA 93940
The Monterey Custom House was the location where the American flag was first raised over California. The building is now a state park, and is marked by several plaques. At that site, in 1846, John Drake Sloat sent Captain William Mervine ashore to raise the U.S. flag at Monterey.
150 South Market Street San Jose, CA 95113
Based on several historic maps, the location of the where the Capitol was in San Jose is now the entrance to the San Jose Fairmont Hotel. A small plaque (dedicated by the Native Sons of the Golden West) is located on the eastern side of Plaza de Cesar Chavez. A larger marker (dedicated by the State of California) is just north of the hotel. The Legislature first met on December 15, 1849, in the San Jose Capitol. The building was 60 feet long, 40 feet wide, and two stories high. The San Jose Capitol Building was destroyed by a fire in 1853. The location was covered by a large parking lot until the Fairmont Hotel was constructed on the site.
The California Supreme Court issued an 1854 decision that San Jose was the legal state capital. From April 1854 to January 1855, the state courts and court archive were located in San Jose. A January 1855 court decision reversed the earlier decision and declared that Sacramento was the legal capital of California. In 1893, E.C. Seymour introduced Senate Constitutional Amendment 23, which would move the state capital to San Jose. It passed the Senate 27 to 8 and the Assembly 57 to 7. The removal was challenged, and the Supreme Court overturned the law, on the basis that it was ineffective (because San Jose hadn’t yet officially donated land for the new capitol).
Having promised land and accommodations, Vallejo became the state capital on January 5, 1852. But when legislators arrived construction of the capitol had not been completed and the noise and lack of accommodations made work impossible. On January 12, 1852, the Legislature agreed to keep Vallejo as the permanent location of the Capitol, but moved to Sacramento for the duration of the 1852 legislative session. At the end of the session, the capital returned to Vallejo, where it remained until just after the start of the next year’s session. On February 11, 1853, the capital was moved to Benicia.
300 York Street Vallejo, CA 94590
Vallejo was the state capitol for 12 days, from January 5 to January 16, 1852, before the state capitol was moved to Sacramento for the duration of the 1852 legislative session. At the end of the session, the Capital returned to Vallejo, where it remained until the beginning of the next year’s session. On January 4, 1853, the Capitol was moved to Benicia.
The 300 block of York Street is now covered by a parking lot for the Solano County Health and Social Services (whose street address is 201 Georgia Street). Based on a comparison of vintage maps and current satellite images of Vallejo, the former location of the capitol building is near the Santa Clara Street entrance to the Health and Social Services’ parking lot (south of Georgia Street).
115 West G St Benicia, CA 94510
The Benicia Capitol (now the Benicia Capitol State Historic Park) is the large red brick building located on the northwest corner of 1st and G streets.
History: Built in 1852 as Benicia’s city hall, the site became California’s Capitol in 1853. The 1853 Session of the Legislature started on January 3, 1853, in Vallejo before moving to Benicia. The Legislature passed legislation to move the capital from Benicia to Sacramento a year later, on February 24, 1854. The location was deeded to the state in 1951 and became a State Historic Park in 1958. Also in 1958, the Legislature passed SCR 2, which returned the capital to Benicia for a single day on March 15, 1958. A second resolution, SCR 54, moved the capital to Benicia temporarily for sesquicentennial festivities on February 16, 2000.
651 I Street Sacramento, CA 95814
Because of the difficulties establishing a permanent center of government in San Jose, Vallejo and Benicia, the City of Sacramento offered its courthouse to the state for use as a capitol. The state Legislature agreed and Sacramento County’s courthouse (located on the northwest corner of 7th and I streets) served as the Capitol from 1852 to 1854 (with a short recess to San Francisco in 1862 due to large-scale flooding). The Legislature apparently found the location acceptable because no plans were made to relocate to another city. However, about a month after the adjournment of the 1854 Legislature, on July 13, the wooden courthouse “along with a considerable portion of the city” was destroyed in a massive fire.
Sacramento II: State Capitol (1855–1869)
651 I Street Sacramento, CA 95814
With the Legislature scheduled to meet again in Sacramento early the following year, the recently destroyed Sacramento County Courthouse was quickly rebuilt following the fire of 1854. Construction of the new courthouse (to serve temporarily as the Capitol) began on September 1854 and was finished in January 1855. The new courthouse was described as a two-story “classical, temple-styled building” with eight Ionic columns. The building was home to the Assembly and Senate chambers, offices for the clerks and legislative officers, as well as the State Controller and Treasurer.
Sacramento County Jail (in 2008)
Although designed with the Legislature in mind, the new structure was a little small for the growing state government. The building, although always viewed by both Sacramento and the state as a temporary home, served an important purpose by allowing the careful selection and orderly construction of the new Capitol without the rush that had characterized the earlier moves. The second Capitol at Sacramento continued to serve as the Capitol for 14 years, as the new state Capitol was being constructed six blocks away. In fact, it wasn’t until 1869, when the current Capitol building was occupied, that the Legislature moved. This site is now the location of the Sacramento County Jail.
In 1870, the building returned to use as the Sacramento County Courthouse. The building was redesigned in 1913, but remained a courthouse until 1965, when a new building opened nearby. The former courthouse was then leveled and the existing building, the Sacramento County Jail, was built in 1989.
A new marker was installed on June 27, 2007, that gives a good history of buildings that previously stood on the site. It replaced an earlier historical landmark that only noted the 1852–1854 tenure of the site.
550 Battery Street San Francisco, CA 94111
As a result of heavy rains in late 1861 and early 1862, the Sacramento River overflowed its banks and the capital city was inundated. Facing significant difficulties if they remained in Sacramento, the Legislature moved temporarily to the Merchants’ Exchange Building in San Francisco. “Erected in 1854 for the Hong Kong trading house of Jardine and Matheson, this imposing, three-story structure, capped with a central dome, was done in the Palladian style of architecture. Statuary of an allegorical nature embellished the cornice.”1
At the conclusion of the 1862 session, the Legislature bid farewell to its temporary home and relocated again to Sacramento.
The Merchants Exchange Building didn’t survive the 1906 earthquake, and the new Richard Henry Dana Building was constructed in its place. A major source of confusion is the existence of a new Merchants Exchange, which was constructed in 1904, at 465 California St., six blocks away from the former Capitol.
1California’s Legislature (2017) edition by Wilson and Ebbert
10th St & L St Sacramento, CA 95814
The construction of the state Capitol began on September 24, 1860. The first work was excavation of the basement wall near M and 11th streets. The cornerstone, laid at the northeast corner of the building, was placed on May 15, 1861. Because the hill that the Capitol sits on had not been formed at the time, the cornerstone is now located approximately six feet underground. Most of the granite for the construction was mined from a quarry on the American River in Folsom on the grounds of the state prison. According to the State Capitol Museum, as construction continued through the first floor, the source of granite was changed from Folsom to Penryn (seven miles north of Folsom). On the exterior of the building, the darker granite is from the Folsom area; the lighter is from Penryn.
The offices of the governor and secretary of state opened for the first time on November 26, 1869. The gold-plated ball at the top of the cupola (240 feet above street level) was signed by the secretary of state on October 30, 1871. Construction finally finished in 1874. The rotunda was open to the public until about 1877, when Thomas Beck ordered it closed because of graffiti and “obscene and improper writing.”
Even at the turn of the century, the state Legislature was beginning to outgrow its home. In 1899, Secretary of State C.F. Curry authorized the conversion of the Capitol attic (until then used for storage) into a new fourth floor that would be used for office space. This space is occupied by committee rooms and the offices of the President pro Tem of the State Senate.
This work lessened the pressure to expand and further construction was delayed until the addition of the Capitol Annex in the 1940s. The groundbreaking for the Annex took place on June 3, 1949. The Apse, which had been home to the State Library for 80 years, was demolished in July and August, with the new structure quickly rising in its place. The Annex was completed, and the hallways connecting it to the “New Capitol” were opened at the end of 1951. Earl Warren became the first to occupy the new governor’s office on October 29, 1951.
The 2001 Truck Attack
On the evening of January 16, 2001, the south side of the State Capitol was severely damaged when a semitrailer smashed into a committee room. Shortly after 9 p.m., long-distance truck driver Mike Bowers took the downtown exit from Highway 99. At 9:22 p.m., the semi sped through a red light at N Street and, hopping the three-inch curb that rings Capitol Park, up the South Lawn and crashed into the South Portico. The fuel tanks burst into flames, starting a four-alarm fire that would burn for a half hour, filling the Capitol with smoke. Although most of the damage from the fire itself was contained to the area around the South Portico and Room 113, there was massive water and smoke damage to the southern half of the Capitol (including the Senate Chambers and Historic Governor’s Office). The restoration would eventually total million.
Farm-To-Fork Capital With its proximity to local farms, Sacramento is at the forefront of fresh, seasonal cuisine sourced right from the city’s backyard California is undeniably the land of plenty—the largest agricultural producer in the country. And it doesn’t get much more farmer than the region surrounding Sacramento.
The California State Capitol is the seat of the Government of California, located in Sacramento, the state capital of California.The building houses the chambers of the California State Legislature, made up of the Assembly and the Senate, along with the office of the governor of California.The Neoclassical structure, designed by Reuben S. Clark, was completed between …
Originally, Monterey was chosen as the Capital of California. However, after Monterey hosted California's Consitutional Convention in 1849 and California was admiited as a State of the United States, the Capital was moved. San Jose was first chosen as the Capital City, then Vallejo and then Benicia.
The state capitals of the fifty states of the United States of America, plus geography facts about each capital city.
The following is a complete list of the state capitals of the 50 United States. The state capital in each state is the political center of the state and the location of the state legislature, government, and governor of the state. In many states, the state capital is not the largest city in terms of population. For example, in California, the most populous state of the United States, the state capital of Sacramento is the fourth largest metropolitan area in the state (the three largest are Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego).
The data below are from the United States Census Bureau.
16-12-2021 · Sacramento (/ ˌ s æ k r ə ˈ m ɛ n t oʊ / SAK-rə-MEN-toh; Spanish: [sakɾaˈmento], Spanish for ''sacrament'') is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat and largest city of Sacramento County.Located at the confluence of the Sacramento and American Rivers in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's 2020 population of 524,943 makes it the sixth-largest ...
Capital city of the U.S. state of California
"Sacramento" redirects here. For other uses, see Sacramento (disambiguation).
"City of Sacramento" redirects here. For the former vessel, see SS Asbury Park.
State capital and city of California, United States
Sacramento (/ˌsækrəˈmɛntoʊ/SAK-rə-MEN-toh; Spanish: [sakɾaˈmento], Spanish for ''sacrament'') is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the seat and largest city of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento and American Rivers in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's 2020 population of 524,943 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth-largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Legislature and the Governor of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. It features the California State Capitol Museum.
Sacramento is also the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which at the 2020 census had a population of 2,397,382, the fifth-largest in California.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the historic Nisenan, Maidu, and other indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Río del Santísimo Sacramento (Sacramento River) in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California, granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed, and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento.
Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of California State University, Sacramento and University of California, Davis. Similarly, Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, and the UC Davis School of Medicine. It is a tourist destination, featuring the California Museum, Crocker Art Museum, California State Railroad Museum, California Hall of Fame, and Old Sacramento State Historic Park. Sacramento International Airport, located northwest of the city, is the city's major airport.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, and is dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine ranked Sacramento as "America's Most Diverse City".
Main articles: History of Sacramento, California and Timeline of Sacramento, California
Spanish Empire 1776–1821
United Mexican States 1839–1848
California Republic 1846
United States 1848–present
Nisenan (Southern Maidu), Modoc, and Plains Miwok Native Americans lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region and by fruits, bulbs, seeds, and roots gathered throughout the year.
In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga encountered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths. The air was like champagne, and (the Spaniards) drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento! (It's like the Blessed Sacrament.)" The valley and the river were then christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ," referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist.
Sutter's Fort was founded in 1840 by John Augustus Sutter during the period of Mexican California.
John Sutter, Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres (20,000 ha). The next year, his party and he established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls 18 feet (5.5 m) high and three feet (0.91 m) thick.
Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss-inspired name, and was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more and more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a 10-acre (4.0 ha) orchard and a herd of 13,000 cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847, Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. Later that year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so he could continue to expand his empire, but unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on thin margins of credit.
Sacramento in 1849, when the city was an economic center of the California Gold Rush
In 1848, when James W. Marshall discovered gold at Sutter's Mill in Coloma (some 50 mi or 80.5 km northeast of the fort), numerous gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population. In August 1848, Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr., arrived to assist his father in reducing his indebtedness. The Sutters struggled to contain the effects of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many who squatted on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or stole various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. For Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal "bane" for him.
By December 1848, John Sutter Jr., in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles (3.2 km) south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr., but the father, being deeply in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For commercial reasons, the new city was named "Sacramento City" after the Sacramento River. Sutter Jr. and Brannan had United States Army Captain William H. Warner assigned to draft the official layout of the city, which included 26 lettered and 31 numbered streets (today's grid from C St. to Broadway and from Front St. to Alhambra Blvd.) Relations between Sutter and his son became embittered after Sacramento became an overnight commercial success. (Sutter's Fort, Mill, and the town of Sutterville, all founded by John Sutter Sr., eventually failed).
Residents of Sacramento adopted a city charter in 1849, which was recognized by the state legislature in 1850. Sacramento is the oldest incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850.
During the early 1850s, the Sacramento valley was devastated by floods, fires and cholera epidemics. Despite this, the new city's location just downstream from the Mother Lode in the Sierra Nevada proved irresistible, and it grew rapidly, attracting a population of 10,000.
Old Sacramento is the settlement that grew out of Sutter's Fort.
The California State Legislature, with the support of Governor John Bigler, moved to Sacramento in 1854. The capital of California under Spanish (and, subsequently, Mexican) rule had been Monterey, where, in 1849, the first Constitutional Convention and state elections were held. The convention decided San Jose would be the new state's capital. After 1850, when California's statehood was ratified, the legislature met in San Jose until 1851, Vallejo in 1852, and Benicia in 1853, before moving to Sacramento. In the Sacramento Constitutional Convention of 1879, Sacramento was named as the permanent state capital.
The Classical Revival-style California State Capitol, similar to the national Capitol, was started in 1860 and completed in 1874. In 1861, the legislative session was moved to the Merchants Exchange Building in San Francisco for one session because of massive flooding in Sacramento. From 1862 to 1868, part of the Leland Stanford Mansion was used for the governor's offices during Stanford's tenure as the Governor; and the legislature met in the Sacramento County Courthouse. The legislative chambers were first occupied in 1869, while construction continued around them.
With its new status and strategic location, Sacramento quickly prospered. It was designated as the western terminus of the Pony Express. Later it became a terminus of the First Transcontinental Railroad, which began construction in Sacramento in 1863 and was financed by "The Big Four"—Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker, Collis P. Huntington, and Leland Stanford. Both the American and especially Sacramento rivers were key elements in the economic success of the city. Sacramento effectively controlled commerce on these rivers, and public works projects were funded through taxes levied on goods unloaded from boats and loaded onto rail cars in the historic Sacramento Rail Yards.
In 1850 and again in 1861, Sacramento residents suffered a completely flooded town. In 1861, Governor Leland Stanford, who was inaugurated in early January 1861, traveled to his inauguration in a rowboat. The event was held not too far from his house in town on N Street. The flood waters were so bad, the legend says, that when Stanford returned to his house, he had to enter into it through the second floor window.
From 1862 until the mid-1870s, Sacramento raised the level of its downtown by building reinforced brick walls on its downtown streets, and filling the resulting street walls with dirt. The previous first floors of buildings became the basements, with open space between the street and the building, previously the sidewalk, now at the basement level. Over the years, many of these underground spaces have been filled or destroyed by subsequent development. However, it is still possible to view portions of the "Sacramento Underground".
During the 1850s the city was consolidated with the County of Sacramento.
Tower Bridge, which connects Sacramento to West Sacramento, was built in 1935 and is a California Historical Landmark.
See also: Urban redevelopment in Sacramento, California
The city's current charter was adopted by voters in 1920. As a charter city, Sacramento is exempt from many laws and regulations passed by the state legislature. The city has expanded continuously over the years. The 1964 merger of the City of North Sacramento with Sacramento substantially increased its population, and large annexations of the Natomas area eventually led to significant population growth throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.
Sacramento County (along with a portion of adjacent Placer County) is served by a customer-owned electric utility, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Sacramento voters approved the creation of SMUD in 1923. In April 1946, after 12 years of litigation, a judge ordered Pacific Gas & Electric to transfer title of Sacramento's electric distribution system to SMUD. Today SMUD is the sixth-largest public electric utility in the U.S., and is a leader for innovative programs and services, including the development of clean fuel resources, such as solar power.
The Elks Tower was built in 1926 in an Italianate style.
The year following the creation of SMUD, 1924, brought several events in Sacramento: Standard Oil executive Verne McGeorge established McGeorge School of Law, American department store Weinstock & Lubin opened a new store at 12th and K street, the US million Senator Hotel was opened, Sacramento's drinking water became filtered and treated drinking water, and Sacramento boxer Georgie Lee fought Francisco Guilledo, a Filipino professional boxer known as Pancho Villa, at L Street Auditorium on March 21.
Early in World War II, the Sacramento Assembly Center (also known as the Walerga Assembly Center) was established to house Japanese Americans forcibly "evacuated" from the West Coast under Executive Order 9066. The camp was one of fifteen temporary detention facilities where over 110,000 Japanese Americans, two-thirds of them U.S. citizens, were held while construction on the more permanent War Relocation Authority camps was completed. The assembly center was built on the site of a former migrant labor camp, and inmates began arriving from Sacramento and San Joaquin Counties on May 6, 1942. It closed after only 52 days, on June 26, and the population of 4,739 was transferred to the Tule Lake concentration camp. The site was then turned over to the Army Signal Corps and dedicated as Camp Kohler.
The 1975 assassination attempt of President Gerald Ford in Capitol Park
After the war and the end of the incarceration program, returning Japanese Americans were often unable to find housing and so 234 families temporarily lived at the former assembly center. Camp Kohler was destroyed by a fire in December 1947, and the assembly center site is now part of the Foothill Farms-North Highlands subdivision.
The Sacramento-Yolo Port District was created in 1947, and ground was broken on the Port of Sacramento in 1949.
On June 29, 1963, with 5,000 spectators waiting to welcome her, the Motor Vessel Taipei Victory arrived. The Nationalist Chinese flagship docked at the Port of Sacramento, being first ocean-going vessel in Sacramento since the steamship Harpoon in 1934.
In 1967, Ronald Reagan became the last Governor of California to live permanently in the city. The 1980s and 1990s saw the closure of several local military bases: McClellan Air Force Base, Mather Air Force Base, and Sacramento Army Depot. In 1980, there was another flood.
In spite of military base closures and the decline of agricultural food processing, Sacramento has continued to experience population growth in recent years. Primary sources of population growth are an influx of residents from the nearby San Francisco Bay Area, as well as immigration from Asia and Latin America. In 1985, Hugh Scrutton, a 38-year-old Sacramento, California, computer store owner, was killed by a nail-and-splinter-loaded bomb placed in the parking lot of his store. In 1996, his death was attributed to the Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski.
After acquiring the majority stake in the Sacramento Kings, the team's new owner, Vivek Ranadivé, with the help of the city, agreed to build a new arena in the downtown area. With a final estimated cost of 8.2 million, Sacramento's Golden 1 Center opened on September 30, 2016.
Satellite photo of Sacramento
Aerial view of Central Sacramento and the Sacramento River
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers 100.1 square miles (259 km2). 97.81% of it is land, and 2.19% of it is water.
Depth to groundwater is typically about 30 feet (9 m). Much of the land to the west of the city (in Yolo County) is permanently reserved for a vast flood control basin (the Yolo Bypass), due to the city's historical vulnerability to floods. As a result, the contiguous urban area sprawls only four miles (6 km) west of downtown (as West Sacramento, California) but 30 miles (48 km) northeast and east, into the Sierra Nevada foothills, and 10 miles (16 km) to the south into valley farmland.
The city is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River, and has a deep-water port connected to the San Francisco Bay by a channel through the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta. It is the shipping and rail center for the Sacramento Valley.
Sacramento has long been known as the "City of Trees" owing to its abundant urban forest. The city has more trees per capita than anywhere else in the world
. The first recorded use of the term was in 1855, and it was popular by the early 20th century. It was not always so: it was at first called the “City of Plains” because of the lack of trees, but soon afterwards there were cottonwood trees planted, and eucalyptus varieties were imported in order to dry out swampland. Later, locust trees, and willows were planted along streets, then elms, then palm trees, then fruit trees in the late 1910s. It was the first US city to be designated a City of Trees by the Arbor Day Foundation in 1978.
In the early 21st century, the tree cover is well above that of the average tree cover of other major cities in the United States and the rest of the world, with the main species the London plane. Other species are being introduced to increase diversity and to help cope with the effects of climate change on vegetation in the future. Treepedia, a project run by MIT using Google Maps’ street-view data to calculate tree coverage in cities, ranked Sacramento the greenest city of 15 studied in the US, and third globally, after Vancouver and Singapore.
A prominent water tower bore the slogan "City of Trees" until 2017, when it was repainted with the words "America’s Farm-to-Fork Capital" (referring to the farm-to-fork movement, which promotes consumption of locally-grown food). After 4,000 displeased citizens signed a petition protesting the change, officials agreed to include both slogans on the water tower.
Panoramic view of downtown Sacramento from West Sacramento
Downtown Sacramento is the home of numerous corporations and organizations.
Old Sacramento at night is a popular destination for fine dining.
The city groups most of its neighborhoods into four areas:
Area One: Alkali Flat, Boulevard Park, Campus Commons, Sacramento State, Dos Rios Triangle, Downtown, East Sacramento, Fab Forties, Mansion Flats, Marshall School, Midtown, New Era Park, McKinley Village, Newton Booth, Old Sacramento, Poverty Ridge, Richards, Richmond Grove, River Park, Elmhurst, Sierra Oaks, Southside Park.
Area Two: Airport, Carleton Tract, Freeport Manor, Golf Course Terrace, Greenhaven, Curtis Park, Hollywood Park, Land Park, Little Pocket, Mangan Park, Meadowview, Parkway, Pocket, Sacramento City College, South Land Park, Valley Hi / North Laguna, Z'Berg Park.
Area Three: Alhambra Triangle, Avondale, Brentwood, Carleton Tract, Colonial Heights, Colonial Manor, Curtis Park, Elmhurst, Fairgrounds, Florin, Industrial Park, Fruitridge Manor, Glen Elder, Glenbrook, Granite Regional Park, Lawrence Park, Med Center, North City Farms, Oak Park, Packard Bell, South City Farms, Southeast Village, Tahoe Park, Tahoe Park East, Tahoe Park South, Tallac Village, Vintage Park, Churchill Downs, and Woodbine.
Area Four: Ben Ali, Del Paso Heights, Gardenland, Hagginwood, McClellan Heights West, Natomas (north, south, west), North Sacramento, Northgate, Robla, Swanston Estates, Terrace Manor, Valley View Acres, and Woodlake.
Additional prominent regions and neighborhoods in the city include Carmichael, Fair Oaks, Citrus Heights, American River Parkway, Arden-Arcade, Arden Fair, Cal Expo, Capital Avenue, Coffing, College Glen, College Greens, Cordova, Creekside, East Fruitridge, Elder Creek, Elkhorn, Elvas, Erikson Industrial Park, Excelsior Sunrise, Foothill Farms, Franklin, Frates Ranch, Gateway Center, Gateway West, Glenwood Meadows, Hansen Park, Heritage Park, Johnson Business Park, Johnson Heights, Mayhew, Metro Center, Mills, Natomas Corporate Center, Natomas Creek, Natomas Crossing, Natomas Park, Newton Booth, Noralto, Northpointe, Norwood, Oak Knoll, Old North Sacramento, Parker Homes, Point West, Raley Industrial Park, Regency Park, Richardson Village, Richmond Grove, Rosemont, Sierra Oaks, Sports Complex, Strawberry Manor, Sundance Lake, Swanston Palms, Town and Country Village, Upper Land Park, Village 5, Village 7, Village 12, Village 14, Village Green, Walerga, Walsh Station, West Del Paso Heights, Westlake, Willowcreek, Wills Acres, Winn Park, Woodside and Youngs Heights.
Climate data for Sacramento, California (Sacramento Executive Airport), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1941–present[a]
Record high °F (°C)
Mean maximum °F (°C)
Average high °F (°C)
Daily mean °F (°C)
Average low °F (°C)
Mean minimum °F (°C)
Record low °F (°C)
Average precipitation inches (mm)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)
Average relative humidity (%)
Average dew point °F (°C)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
Source: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961–1990)
Climate data for Sacramento 5 ESE, California (Sacramento State), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1877–present
Record high °F (°C)
Mean maximum °F (°C)
Average high °F (°C)
Daily mean °F (°C)
Average low °F (°C)
Mean minimum °F (°C)
Record low °F (°C)
Average precipitation inches (mm)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)
Source: NOAA, Western Regional Climate Center
Sacramento has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa), characterized by very hot, dry summers and mild to cool winters with occasional rainfall. The wet season is generally October through April, though there may be a day or two of light rainfall in June or September. The normal annual mean temperature is 61.8 °F (16.6 °C), with the monthly daily average temperature ranging from 47.3 °F (8.5 °C) in December to 75.9 °F (24.4 °C) in July. Summer heat is sometimes moderated by a sea breeze known as the "delta breeze" which comes through the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the San Francisco Bay, and temperatures cool down sharply at night.
The American River is popular for kayaking and recreational boating.
The foggiest months are December and January. Tule fog can be extremely dense, lowering visibility to less than 100 feet (30 m) and making driving conditions extremely hazardous. Chilling tule fog events have been known to last for several consecutive days or weeks. During Tule fog events, temperatures do not exceed 50 °F (10 °C).
Snowfall is rare in Sacramento, which is only 25 ft (7.6 m) above sea level. In the downtown area, only three significant snow accumulations have occurred since 1900, the last one being in 1976. During especially cold winter and spring storms, intense showers do occasionally produce a significant amount of hail, which can create hazardous driving conditions. Snowfall in the city often melts upon ground contact, with traceable amounts occurring in some years. Significant annual snow accumulations occur in the foothills 40 mi (64 km) east of the city, which had brief and traceable amounts of snowfall in January 2002, December 2009, and February 2011. The greatest snowfall ever recorded in Sacramento was 3 inches (8 cm) on January 5, 1888.
A farmer's market at Chavez Park
On average, there are 76 days with a high of 90 °F (32 °C)+, and 14 days with a high of 100 °F (38 °C)+; On the other extreme, there are 8.5 days where the temperature remains below 50 °F (10 °C), and 15 freezing nights per year. Official temperature extremes range from 18 °F (−8 °C) on December 22, 1990, to 115 °F (46 °C) on June 15, 1961; a station around 5 mi (8.0 km) east-southeast of the city dipped to 17 °F (−8 °C) on December 11, 1932.
The average annual precipitation is 18.14 inches (461 mm). On average, precipitation falls on 58 days each year in Sacramento, and nearly all of this falls during the winter months. Average January rainfall is 3.66 in (93 mm), and measurable precipitation is rare during the summer months. In February 1992, Sacramento had 16 consecutive days of rain, resulting in an accumulation of 6.41 in (163 mm) for the period. On rare occasions, monsoonal moisture surges from the Desert Southwest can bring upper-level moisture to the Sacramento region, leading to increased summer cloudiness, humidity, and even light showers and thunderstorms. Monsoon clouds do occur, usually during late July through early September. Sacramento is the second most flood susceptible city in the United States after New Orleans.
Sacramento has been noted as being the sunniest location on the planet for four months of the year, from May through August. It holds the distinction as the sunniest month, in terms of percent possible sunshine, of anywhere in the world; July in Sacramento averages 14 hours and 12 minutes of sunshine per day, amounting to approximately 100% of possible sunshine.
U.S. Decennial Census 2010–2020
In 2002, the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City." The U.S. Census Bureau also groups Sacramento with other U.S. cities having a "high diversity" rating of the diversity index. Moreover, Sacramento is one of the most well-integrated U.S. cities, having a relatively high level of ethnic and racial heterogeneity within its neighborhoods.
The 2010 United States Census reported Sacramento had a population of 466,488. The population density was 4,660.0 people per square mile (1,799.2/km2).
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 138,165 persons (26.9%); 22.6% of Sacramento's population is of Mexican heritage which amounts to over four-fifths of the city's Hispanic/Latino diaspora, 0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Salvadoran, 0.2% Guatemalan, and 0.2% Nicaraguan. Non-Hispanic Whites were 34.5% of the population in 2010, down from 71.4% in 1970.
Map of racial distribution in Sacramento, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or other (yellow)
The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament
The Census reported 458,174 people (98.2% of the population) lived in households, 4,268 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 4,046 (0.9%) were institutionalized. The recent[when?] housing crash has not impacted these numbers.
There were 174,624 households, out of which 57,870 (33.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 65,556 (37.5%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 27,640 (15.8%) had a female householder with no husband present, 10,534 (6.0%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 13,234 (7.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,498 (1.4%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 53,342 households (30.5%) were made up of individuals, and 14,926 (8.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62. There were 103,730 families (59.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.37.
Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita, ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California behind San Francisco and slightly behind Oakland, with roughly 10% of the city's total population identifying themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
The age distribution of the city was follows: 116,121 people (24.9%) were under the age of 18, 52,438 people (11.2%) aged 18 to 24, 139,093 people (29.8%) aged 25 to 44, 109,416 people (23.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 49,420 people (10.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.
There were 190,911 housing units at an average density of 1,907.1 per square mile (736.3/km2), of which 86,271 (49.4%) were owner-occupied, and 88,353 (50.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.3%. 231,593 people (49.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 226,581 people (48.6%) lived in rental housing units.
U.S. Bank Tower is the second tallest building in Sacramento.
The Robert T. Matsui U.S. Courthouse is home to the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California.
The Sacramento metropolitan area is the fifth largest in California after the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Inland Empire, and the San Diego metropolitan area, and is the 27th largest in the United States.
Sutter Health, Blue Diamond Growers, Aerojet Rocketdyne, Teichert, and The McClatchy Company are among the companies based in Sacramento.
The Port of Sacramento has been plagued with operating losses in recent years and faces bankruptcy. This severe loss in business is due to the heavy competition from the Port of Stockton, which has a larger facility and a deeper channel. As of 2006, the city of West Sacramento took responsibility for the Port of Sacramento. During the Vietnam War era, the Port of Sacramento was the major terminus in the supply route for all military parts, hardware and other cargo going to Southeast Asia.
As of 2019, the top employers in the County of Sacramento were:
State of California
UC Davis Health
Dignity Health/Catholic Healthcare West
Elk Grove Unified School District
City of Sacramento
Sacramento City Unified School District
San Juan Unified School District
The Sacramento Convention Center Complex hosts the Sacramento Ballet and the Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra.
The Sacramento Ballet, Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra and the Sacramento Opera perform at the Community Center Theater.
There are several major theater venues in Sacramento. The Sacramento Convention Center Complex governs both the Community Center Theatre and Memorial Auditorium. The H Street Theatre Complex consists of the Wells Fargo Pavilion, built in 2003 atop the old Music Circus tent foundations, the McClatchy Mainstage and the Pollock Stage, originally built as a television studio and renovated at the same time the Pavilion was built. These smaller venues seat 300 and 90, offering a more intimate presentation than the 2300-seat Pavilion. The newest venue in the city, the Sofia Tsakopoulos Center for the Arts, consists of the 365-seat Sutter Theatre for Children and the Mainstage, seating 250.
Professional theatre is represented in Sacramento by a number of companies. Broadway Sacramento and its locally produced summer stock theatre, Broadway at Music Circus, lures many directors, performers, and artists from New York and Los Angeles to work alongside a large local staff at the Wells Fargo Pavilion. During the fall, winter and spring seasons Broadway Sacramento brings bus and truck tours to the Community Center Theater. Resident at the H Street Theatre Complex for the remainder of the year (from September to May), the Sacramento Theatre Company prepares to celebrate its 75th season, beginning in the Fall of 2019. In addition to a traditional regional theatre fare of classical plays and musicals, the Sacramento Theatre Company has a large School of the Arts with a variety of opportunities for arts education. The B Street Theatre, having completed its 2018 move into the new Sofia Tsakopoulos Center for the Arts, continues its pursuit of producing smaller and more intimate professional works for families and children. Rounding out the professional companies is Capital Stage, which performed aboard the Delta King until the end of the 2010–2011 season and soon took up residence at its own venue along the J-Street corridor.
The Sacramento area has one of the largest collections of community theatres in California. Some of these include the Thistle Dew Dessert Theatre and Playwrights Workshop, Davis Musical Theatre Co., El Dorado Musical Theatre, Runaway Stage Productions, River City Theatre Company, Flying Monkey Productions, The Actor's Theatre, KOLT Run Productions, Kookaburra Productions, Big Idea Theatre, Celebration Arts, Lambda Player, Light Opera Theatre of Sacramento, Synergy Stage and the historic Eagle Theatre. The Sacramento Shakespeare Festival provides entertainment under the stars every summer in William Land Park. Many of these theatres compete annually for the Elly Awards overseen by The Sacramento Area Regional Theatre Alliance or SARTA.
The Sacramento Metropolitan Arts Commission is an organization that was established as the Sacramento arts council in 1977 to provide several arts programs for the city. These include Art in Public Places, Arts Education, Grants and Cultural Programs, Poet Laureate Program, Arts Stabilization Programs and Other Resources and opportunities.
Sacramento Second Saturday Art Walk is a program of local art galleries that stay open into the late evenings every second Saturday of each month, providing a unique experience for the local population as well as tourists to view original art and meet the artists themselves.
Sacramento is home to one of California's oldest Latino cultural centers, the Latino Center of Art and Culture The Latino Center of Art and Culture was founded in the early ‘70’s by activist Chicano students to combat racism and instill pride in the Chicano community. Known as La Raza Galeria it was home to artists like Ricardo Favela, José Montoya and Esteban Villa who formed the Chicano artist collective, the Royal Chicano Air Force. LCAC maintains legacy of activism for cultural equity, accessibility to the arts, social justice. The Center is a community hub offering support to emerging Latinx artists and produces live programming.
The Crocker Art Museum is the oldest public art museum in the Western United States and has one of the premier public art collections in the country.
Sacramento has several major museums. The Crocker Art Museum is the oldest public art museum west of the Mississippi River. On July 26, 2007, the museum broke ground for an expansion that more than tripled the museum's floor space. The modern architecture is very different from the museum's original Victorian style building. Construction was completed in 2010.
Also of interest is the Governor's Mansion State Historic Park, a large Victorian Mansion which was home to 14 of California's Governors. The Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park, which was completely restored in 2006, serves as the State's official address for diplomatic and business receptions. Guided public tours are available. The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts, home of the California Hall of Fame, is a cultural destination dedicated to telling the rich history of California and its unique influence on the world of ideas, innovation, art and culture. The museum educates tens of thousands of school children through inspiring programs, sharing with world visitors California's rich art, history and cultural legacy through dynamic exhibits, and serving as a public forum and international meeting place.
The California State Railroad Museum in Old Sacramento has historical exhibits and live steam locomotives that patrons may ride. The California Automobile Museum, just south of Old Sacramento, is filled with automotive history and vehicles from 1880 to 2006 and is the oldest non-profit automotive museum in the West. The mission of it is to preserve, promote, and teach automotive culture and its influence on our lives—past, present and future. In addition, the Sacramento History Museum, in the heart of Old Sacramento, focuses on the history of Sacramento from the region's pre-Gold Rush history through the present day.
There is a Museum Day held in Sacramento every year, when 26 museums in the greater Sacramento area offer free admission. The 2009 Sacramento Museum Day brought out more than 80,000 people, the largest number the event has gathered. Sacramento Museum Day is held every year on the first Saturday of February.
The Wells Fargo Pavilion hosts the California Musical Theatre and the Sacramento Theatre Company.
Tower Records was started and based in Sacramento until its closing. Classical music is widely available. The Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra, the Sacramento Baroque Soloists, the Sacramento Choral Society & Orchestra, the Sacramento Youth Symphony, the Sacramento Master Singers, the Sacramento Children's Chorus, and the Camellia Symphony each present a full season of concerts.
Each year, the city hosts the Sammies, the Sacramento Music Awards. Sacramento also has a reputation as a center for Dixieland jazz, because of the Sacramento Jazz Jubilee which is held every Memorial Day weekend. Events and performances are held in multiple locations throughout the city. Each year thousands of jazz fans from all over the world visit for this one weekend.
A growing number of rock, hardcore and metal bands hail from the Sacramento area, including Tesla, AS IS, Deftones, Papa Roach, Will Haven, Trash Talk, Dance Gavin Dance, A Lot Like Birds, Far, CAKE, !!!, Oleander and Steel Breeze; plus some other famous musicians like record producer and recording artist Charlie Peacock, Duane Leinan, Bob Stubbs of Social Distortion and Craig Chaquico of Jefferson Starship. Along with these bands, the Aftershock Festival has been held at Discovery Park since 2012.
Scottish pop band Middle of the Road sang kindly of Sacramento in their 1972 European hit song "Sacramento". Experimental groups such as Hella, Death Grips, and Tera Melos also come out of Sacramento.
Rappers C-Bo, Marvaless, Lunasicc, Mozzy and Chuuwee are among those native to the area.
Sacramento is home to the Sacramento French Film Festival, a cultural event held every year in July that features U.S. premieres of French films and classic masterpieces of French cinema and the Sacramento Japanese Film Festival, also held in July. In addition, Sacramento is home to the Trash Film Orgy, a summer film festival celebrating the absurd, B-movies, horror, monster, and exploitation films. Founded in 2007, the Sacramento Horror Film Festival showcases feature-length and short films as well as live musical and theatrical performances in the horror and macabre genres.
Of note, Sacramento has been home to various actors, including Eddie Murphy, who resided in the Riverlake community of Pocket-Greenhaven with his then wife Nicole Mitchell Murphy, a fashion model and Sacramento native. It is also the home of director Greta Gerwig, whose solo directorial debut Lady Bird is set in Sacramento.
The Sacramento Theatre Company is Sacramento's oldest theatre troupe
In 2012, Sacramento started the marketing campaign as "America's Farm-to-Fork Capital" due to Sacramento's many restaurants that source their food from the numerous surrounding farms. The city has an annual Farm-to-Fork festival that showcases various grocers and growers in the industry. In 2012, The Kitchen was nominated for Outstanding Restaurant by the James Beard Foundation. It continues to excel, earning the AAA's Five Diamond dining award since 2011. Sacramento is home to well-known cookbook authors, Biba Caggiano of Biba's Restaurant and Mai Pham of Lemongrass and Star Ginger.
Sacramento is also known for its beverage culture, with keystone events that include Cal Expo's Grape and Gourmet, Sacramento Beer Week, and Sacramento Cocktail Week. Its growing beer scene is evident, with over 60 microbreweries in the region as of 2017. Some local brews include Track 7 Brewing Company, Big Stump Brew Co, Oak Park Brewing Co., and Sactown Union Brewery. Numerous beer festivals around the region highlight both local and visitor beers. In addition to festivals in Elk Grove, Davis, Roseville, Placerville, and Woodland, Sacramento hosts the annual California Beer Craft Summit, an exposition dedicated to the art of brewing. The summit also hosts the largest beer festival on the West Coast, featuring over 160 breweries in downtown Sacramento.
Sacramento's contemporary culture is reflected in its coffee. An "underrated coffee city", Sacramento has above-average marks for local coffee. The city has numerous community roasters and coffee shops. Examples include Temple Coffee, Insight Coffee Roasters, Old Soul Co., Chocolate Fish Roasters, Naked Lounge, Pachamama Coffee Cooperative, and Identity Coffees. In addition to local brands, the region offers other chains such as Starbucks, Peet's Coffee & Tea, and Philz Coffee.
Sacramento has one of the highest LGBT populations per capita, ranking seventh among major American cities, and third in California behind San Francisco and slightly behind Oakland, with roughly 10% of the city's total population identifying themselves as gay, lesbian, transgender, or bisexual. Lavender Heights is the hub for LGBTQ activities in the city and is a centrally located district in Midtown Sacramento centered within and around K & 20th streets. The area owes its name to the high number of queer-owned homes and businesses residing there. The area is also home to many of the city's LGBTQ inclusive music and arts festivals, including the Second Saturday Block Party from May to September. Sacramento claims the highest specifically transgender population in Northern California, with San Francisco and surrounding Bay Area towns following closely behind.
The Gender Health Center in downtown Sacramento is the only transgender-specific clinic in Northern California outside of San Francisco. The non-profit clinic provides community resources and free or low-cost transgender health care.
Main article: Old Sacramento State Historic Park
Old Sacramento is a National Historic Landmark District.
The oldest part of the town besides Sutter's Fort is Old Sacramento, which consists of cobbled streets and many historic buildings, several from the 1850s and 1860s. Buildings have been preserved, restored, or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction, with rides on steam-powered historic trains and horse-drawn carriages.
The historic buildings include the Lady Adams Building, built by the passengers and ship's carpenters of the ship Lady Adams. Having survived the Great Conflagration of November 1852, it is the oldest surviving building in Sacramento other than Sutter's Fort.
Another surviving landmark is the B.F. Hastings building, built in 1853. The early home of the California Supreme Court and the location of the office of Theodore Judah, it also was the western terminus of the Pony Express.
The "Big Four Building," built in 1852, was home to the offices of Collis Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford, and Charles Crocker. The Central Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Railroad were founded there. The original building was destroyed in 1963 for the construction of Interstate 5, but was re-created using original elements in 1965. It is now a National Historic Landmark. Also of historic interest is the Eagle Theatre (Sacramento, California), a reconstruction of California's first permanent theatre in its original location.
Historic Sacramento Chinatown Paifang
The Opium Wars of the 1840s and 1850s, along with the Gold Rush, brought many Chinese people to California. Most arrived at San Francisco, which was then the largest city in California and known as "Dà Bù" (Chinese: 大埠; Jyutping: daai6 fau6). Some eventually came to Sacramento, then the second-largest city in California and consequently called "Yee Fow" (Chinese: 二埠; Jyutping: ji6 fau6). Today the city is known as "萨克拉门托" (pinyin: Sàkèlāméntuō) by Mainland Chinese and as "沙加緬度" (pinyin: Shājiāmiǎnduó) by Taiwanese.
Sacramento's Chinatown was on "I" Street from Second to Sixth Streets. At the time, this area of "I" Street was considered a health hazard because, lying within a levee zone, it was lower than other parts of the city, which were situated on higher land. Throughout Sacramento's Chinatown history, there were fires, acts of discrimination, and prejudicial legislation such as the Chinese Exclusion Act that was not repealed until 1943. The mysterious fires were thought to be set off by those who did not take a liking to the Chinese working class. Ordinances on what was viable building material were set into place to try to get the Chinese to move out. Newspapers such as The Sacramento Union wrote stories at the time that portrayed the Chinese in an unfavorable light to inspire ethnic discrimination and drive the Chinese away. As the years passed, a railroad was created over parts of the Chinatown, and further policies and laws would make it even harder for Chinese workers to sustain a living in Sacramento.
While most of Sacramento's Chinatown has now been razed, a small Chinatown mall remains as well as a museum dedicated to the history of Sacramento's Chinatown and the contributions Chinese Americans have made to the city. Amtrak sits along what was part of Sacramento's Chinatown "I" Street.
Main article: Sports in Sacramento, California
The Golden 1 Center is home of the Sacramento Kings of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Sacramento is home to one major league sports team – the Sacramento Kings of the National Basketball Association. The Kings came to Sacramento from Kansas City in 1985. On January 21, 2013, a controlling interest of the Sacramento Kings was sold to hedge fund manager Chris Hansen, who intended to move the franchise to Seattle for the 2013–2014 NBA season and rename the team the Seattle SuperSonics. Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson fought the move, forming an ownership group led by Vivek Ranadive to keep the Kings in Sacramento. On May 16, 2013, the NBA Board of Governors voted 22–8 to keep the Kings in Sacramento.
Sacramento has two other professional teams. Sacramento Republic FC began play in April 2014 at Hughes Stadium before a sellout crowd of 20,231, setting a USL Pro regular-season single game attendance record. They now play in Papa Murphy's Park. Republic FC won the USL championship in their first season. In October 2019, Republic FC's Major League Soccer expansion bid was approved; the team was expected to begin MLS play in the 2022 season, until being delayed by COVID-19 to the 2023 season. However, as of February 26, 2021, the bid is on indefinite hiatus. In 2000, AAA minor league baseball returned to Sacramento with the Sacramento River Cats, an affiliate of the San Francisco Giants and formerly an affiliate of the Oakland Athletics. The River Cats play at Sutter Health Park, in West Sacramento.
Sacramento is the former home of two professional basketball teams. The Sacramento Heatwave of the American Basketball Association previously played in the Sacramento area until 2013. Sacramento was also formerly home to the now defunct Sacramento Monarchs of the WNBA. The Monarchs were one of the eight founding members of the WNBA in 1997 and won the WNBA Championship in 2005, but folded in November 2009.
Sacramento professional teams (ranked by attendance)
Golden 1 Center
1 NBA, 2 NBL (as Rochester Royals)
Sacramento Republic FC
Papa Murphy's Park
1 USL Pro
Sacramento River Cats
Sutter Health Park
3 Triple-A titles, 5 League titles
Sacramento has frequently hosted the NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship as well as the 1st and 2nd rounds of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship. The California International Marathon (est. 1983) attracts a field of international elite runners who vie for a share of the ,000 prize purse. The fast course is popular for runners seeking to achieve a Boston Marathon qualifying time and fitness runners.
Parks and recreation
The Capitol Mall is a major monumental parkway leading from Tower Bridge to the California Capitol.
Sacramento boasts an extensive park system consisting of over 5,000 acres (2,023 ha) of parkland and recreation centers. The city features a collection of smaller parks in the downtown districts, including Crocker Park, Pioneer Landing and Southside Park. Popular parks outside the central core include American River Parkway which spans 23 miles along the American River, and William Land Park.
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported Sacramento was tied with San Francisco and Boston for having the 3rd best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes the city's median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.
Sacramento is a hotbed for high school rugby. Jesuit High is the recent defending national champion (winning five times in total). Their arch-rival school Christian Brothers came in second nationwide. Burbank, Del Campo, and Vacaville have also placed well in the national competition over the years. The Sacramento Valley High School Rugby Conference hosts the largest and arguably deepest preseason youth and high school rugby tournament in America.
The California State Fair is held at the California Exposition.
Sacramento hosts some recreational facilities and events. The Jedediah Smith Memorial Trail that runs between Old Sacramento and Folsom Lake grants access to the American River Parkway, a natural area that includes more than 5,000 acres (20 km2) of undeveloped land. It attracts cyclists and equestrians from across the state. The California State Fair is held in Sacramento each year at the end of the summer, ending on Labor Day. In 2010, the State Fair moved to July. More than one million people attended this fair in 2001.
Among other recreational options in Sacramento is Discovery Park, a 275-acre (1.1 km2) park studded with stands of mature trees and grasslands. This park is situated where the American River flows into the Sacramento River.
In amateur sports, Sacramento claims many prominent Olympians such as Mark Spitz, Debbie Meyer (6 time gold medalist in for US swimming), Mike Burton, Summer Sanders (Gold medalist in swimming, and trained in childhood by Debbie Meyer at Rio Del Oro Racquet Club), Jeff Float (all swimming), and Billy Mills (track). Coach Sherm Chavoor founded his world-famous Arden Hills Swim Club just east of the city and trained Burton, Spitz and others.
Main article: Government of Sacramento, California
The California Governor's Mansion is the official residence of the Governor of California.
Sacramento City Hall holds the Mayor of Sacramento and Sacramento City Council.
The Government of Sacramento operates as a charter city (as opposed to a general law city) under the Charter of the City of Sacramento. The elected government is composed of the Sacramento City Council with 8 city council districts and the Mayor of Sacramento, which operate under a mayor-council government. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the City Manager, Sacramento Police Department (SPD), the Sacramento Fire Department (SFD), City Clerk, City Attorney, and City Treasurer. As of 2016, the mayor is Darrell Steinberg and the council members are Angelique Ashby, Allen Warren, Jeff Harris, Steve Hansen, Jay Schenirer, Rich Jennings, and Larry Carr. The City of Sacramento is part of Sacramento County, for which the government of Sacramento County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, and the Charter of the County of Sacramento.
As the capital city of California, Sacramento is home to the Government of California. The California State Capitol is the seat of the Governor of California and the California State Legislature, and the city is home to numerous California state agencies. The Supreme Court of California is headquartered in San Francisco, but maintains one of its two branch offices in Sacramento, where it shares a courtroom with the Court of Appeal for the Third Appellate District.
State and Federal representation
In the California State Senate, Sacramento is the heart of the 6th district, represented by Democrat Richard Pan. In the California State Assembly, it is split between the 7th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Kevin McCarty, and the 9th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Cooper.
In the United States House of Representatives, Sacramento forms the majority of the California's 6th congressional district, represented by Democrat Doris Matsui.
Sacramento has been carried by the Democrats in each of the last six presidential elections, with the last four Democratic campaigns each exceeding 70% of the vote.
Sacramento city vote by party in presidential elections
See also: California State University, Sacramento; University of California, Davis; and University of the Pacific (United States)
The main campus of the University of California, Davis is in Davis, California (top) and the UC Davis Medical Center in Sacramento (bottom).
Sacramento State University is one of the best ranked universities on the West Coast.
The McGeorge School of Law of the University of the Pacific is a law school in the Oak Park neighborhood.
The Sacramento area hosts a wide variety of higher educational opportunities. There are two major public universities, many private institutions, community colleges, vocational schools, and McGeorge School of Law.
Sacramento is home to Sacramento State (California State University, Sacramento), founded as Sacramento State College in 1947. In 2004, enrollment was 22,555 undergraduates and 5,417 graduate students in the university's eight colleges. The university's mascot is the hornet, and the school colors are green and gold. The 300 acres (1.2 km2) campus is along the American River Parkway a few miles east of downtown.
The University of California has a campus, UC Davis, in nearby Davis and has a graduate center in downtown Sacramento. The UC Davis Graduate School of Management (GSM) is near the UC Davis Medical Center off of Stockton Boulevard near Highway 50. Many students, about 400 out of 517, at the UC Davis GSM are working professionals and are completing their MBA part-time. The part-time program is ranked in the top-20 and is well known for its small class size, world class faculty, and involvement in the business community. UC also maintains the University of California Sacramento Center (UCCS) for undergraduate and graduate studies. Similar to the UC's Washington, D.C., program, "Scholar Interns" engage in both academic studies and as well as internships, often with the state government. The UC Davis School of Medicine is at the UC Davis Medical Center between the neighborhoods of Elmhurst, Tahoe Park, and Oak Park.
The Los Rios Community College District consists of several two-year colleges in the Sacramento area—American River College, Cosumnes River College, Sacramento City College, Folsom Lake College, plus a large number of outreach centers for those colleges. Sierra College is on the outskirts of Sacramento in Rocklin.
University of the Pacific has its Sacramento Campus in the Oak Park neighborhood of Sacramento. The campus has long included McGeorge School of Law and in 2015 was expanded to become a comprehensive graduate and professional campus, including programs in analytics, business, education, health sciences, and public policy.
The National University Sacramento regional campus offers bachelor's and master's degrees in business, education, health-care and teaching credential programs.
The University of San Francisco has one of its four regional campuses in Sacramento. At the undergraduate level they offer degrees in Applied Economics, Information Systems, Organizational Behavior and Leadership, and Public Administration. At the graduate level, Master's programs are offered in: Information Security and Assurance, Information Systems, Organization Development, Project Management, Public Administration, Nonprofit Administration, and Counseling.
The private University of Southern California has an extension in downtown Sacramento, called the State Capital Center. The campus, taught by main campus professors, Sacramento-based professors, and practitioners in the State Capitol and state agencies, offers Master of Public Administration, Masters of Public Policy, and Master of Public Health degrees.
Epic Bible College and the Professional School of Psychology are also based in Sacramento.
Western Seminary has one of its four campuses in Sacramento, which opened on the campus of Arcade Church in 1991. Western is an evangelical, Christian graduate school that provides theological training for students who hope to serve in a variety of ministry roles including pastors, marriage and family therapists, educators, missionaries and lay leadership. The Sacramento campus offers four master's degrees, and a variety of other graduate-level programs.
A satellite campus of Alliant International University offers graduate and undergraduate programs of study.
The Art Institute of California – Sacramento was established in 2007, and is a branch of The Art Institute of California – Los Angeles. The school is focused on educating students in the field of commercial arts. The school offers both a Bachelor of Science and an Associate of Science degree, as well as diplomas in some areas of study. Some majors the school offers are Digital Film-making & Video Production, Culinary Management, Graphic Design, and Game Art & Design. The school has since been closed.
On J Street, there is the Lincoln Law School of Sacramento, a private, evening-only law school program with a strong legal presence in the region.
The Universal Technical Institute (UTI) is in Sacramento; it offers automotive programs in auto mechanical, auto body, and diesel.
Primary and secondary education
The historic C.K. McClatchy High School
The Sacramento Public Library system has 28 branches in the greater area. The Sacramento area is served by various public school districts, including the Sacramento City Unified School District, Natomas Unified School District, San Juan Unified School District, Twin Rivers Unified School District, and Elk Grove Unified School District. As of 2009, the area's schools employed 9,600 elementary school teachers (not including special education teachers), and 7,410 middle school teachers (not including special education or vocational teachers).
Almost all areas south of the American River are served by the Sacramento City Unified School District. The only exceptions are the Valley Hi/North Laguna and Florin areas served by the Elk Grove Unified School District.
Areas north of the American River are served by the remaining school districts. This area was not originally part of the City of Sacramento and as such is not served by Sacramento City Unified School District. North Sacramento outside of Natomas and Robla (for K-8) is served by the Twin Rivers Unified School District. The Robla area is served by the Robla School District for K-8 and by Twin Rivers for 9–12. The Natomas region is served by the Natomas Unified School District. The Campus Commons area and the small portions of the Sierra Oaks neighborhood that fall into the city of Sacramento are served by the San Juan Unified School District.
While Roman Catholic institutions still dominate the independent school scene in the Sacramento area, in 1964, Sacramento Country Day School opened and offered Sacramento citizens an independent school affiliated with the California Association of Independent Schools. SCDS has grown to its present-day status as a learning community for students from pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. Additionally, the suburb of Fair Oaks hosts the expansive riverside campus of the Sacramento Waldorf School, a Steiner school adjacent to the Rudolf Steiner College, and the largest Waldorf school in North America. Sacramento Waldorf School educates students from pre-K through 12th grade on a secluded, pastoral site that incorporates a large, functioning biodynamic farm.
Shalom School is the only Jewish day school in Sacramento; however, Brookefield School on property owned by Congregation B'nai Israel provides extracurricular Jewish education.
Capital Christian School is a pre-school–12th grade private Christian school. There is a small Bible college on campus offering associate degrees in Bible studies or theology. Sacramento Adventist Academy is another Christian school in Greater Sacramento. This is a pre-school–12 institution, as well.
There is one Islamic school in Sacramento, Masjid Annur, founded in 1988.
Renaissance Tower is Sacramento's fifth tallest building.
Sacramento is one of the three homes of the Supreme Court of California.
The historic Citizen Hotel in Downtown Sacramento
Government Technology Magazine
Top two newspapers
The Sacramento Bee, the primary newspaper, was founded in 1857 by James McClatchy. The Sacramento Bee is the flagship paper of The McClatchy Company, the second-largest newspaper publisher in the United States. The Sacramento Bee has won five Pulitzer Prizes in its history and numerous other awards, including many for its progressive public service campaigns promoting free speech (the Bee often criticized government policy, and uncovered many scandals hurting Californians), anti-racism (the Bee supported the Union during the American Civil War and later publicly denounced the Ku Klux Klan), worker's rights (the Bee has a strong history of supporting unionization), and environmental protection (leading numerous tree-planting campaigns and fighting against environmental destruction in the Sierra Nevada).
The Sacramento Union, the Sacramento Bee's rival, started publishing six years earlier in 1851; it closed its doors in 1994, with a revival attempt lasting from 2005 to 2009. Writer and journalist Mark Twain wrote for the Union in 1866.
Sacramento Business Journal
Sacramento News & Review
The Sacramento Observer
Radio stations serving Sacramento include:
City of license
Soft Adult Contemporary
California Black Chamber of Commerce
Classic hip hop
Hot adult contemporary
MeTV on 3.2
KVIE 2 on 6.2, World on 6.3, PBS Kids on 6.4
Infomercials on 8.2, SBN on 8.3, Independent on 8.4, Retro TV on 8.5, HOT TV on 8.6, Rev'n on 8.7
True Crime Network on 10.2, Bounce TV on 10.3, Quest on 10.4
Start TV on 13.2, Dabl on 13.3, Fave TV on 13.4
Bounce TV on 19.3, Court TV Mystery on 19.4
Court TV on 29.2, Laff on 29.3, Bounce TV on 29.4, Defy TV on 29.5, True Real on 29.6
Laff on 31.2, Comet on 31.3, Stadium on 31.4, Circle on 31.5
Antenna TV on 40.2, Court TV on 40.3, TBD on 40.4
Movies! on 58.2, Estrella TV on 58.3
Main article: Transportation in the Sacramento metropolitan area
A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Sacramento 24th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.
Roads and highways
Tower Bridge over the Sacramento River
Sacramento is a control city and the region is served by several highways and freeways. Interstate 80 (I-80) is the major east–west route, connecting Sacramento with San Francisco in the west, and Reno in the east. Business 80 (the Capital City Freeway) splits from I-80 in West Sacramento, runs through Sacramento, and then rejoins its parent in the northwest portion of the city. U.S. Highway 50 also begins its eastern journey in West Sacramento, co-signed with Business 80, but then splits off and heads toward South Lake Tahoe as the El Dorado Freeway. A sign at the eastern terminus of US 50 in Ocean City, Maryland gives the distance to Sacramento as 3,073 miles (4,946 km).
Interstate 5 (I-5) runs through Sacramento, heads north up to Redding, and then heads south near the western edge of the California Central Valley towards Los Angeles. California State Highway 99 runs through Sacramento, heading closer to the eastern edge of the Central Valley, connecting to Marysville and Yuba City in the north, and Fresno and Bakersfield in the south. California State Highway 160 approaches the city after running along the Sacramento River from Contra Costa County in the south, and then becomes a major city street in Downtown Sacramento before turning into the North Sacramento Freeway, going over the American River to Business 80.
Some Sacramento neighborhoods, such as Downtown Sacramento and Midtown Sacramento are very bicycle friendly as are many other communities in the region. As a result of litigation, Sacramento has undertaken to make all city facilities and sidewalks wheelchair accessible. In an effort to preserve its urban neighborhoods, Sacramento has constructed traffic-calming measures in many areas.
Amtrak's Sacramento Valley Rail Station is a gateway for the Sacramento Valley.
Amtrak provides passenger rail service to the city of Sacramento. The Sacramento Valley Rail Station is on the corner of 5th and I streets near the historic Old Town Sacramento and underwent extensive renovations in 2007. The station serves as a Sacramento Regional Transit District Light Rail terminus.
Amtrak California operates the Capitol Corridor, a multiple-frequency service providing service from the capital city to its northeastern suburbs and the San Francisco Bay Area.
Sacramento is the northern terminus of the Amtrak California San Joaquins route which provide direct multiple-frequency passenger rail service to California's Central Valley as far as Bakersfield; Thruway Motorcoach connections are available from the trains at Bakersfield to Southern California and Southern Nevada. An additional service under this banner is expected to be routed through Midtown in 2020.
Sacramento is a stop along Amtrak's Coast Starlight route which provides scenic service to Seattle via Klamath Falls and Portland to the north and to Los Angeles via San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara to the south.
Amtrak's California Zephyr serves Sacramento daily and provides service to the east serving Reno, Salt Lake, Denver, Omaha, Chicago and intermediate cities.
The Sacramento Valley Rail Station provides numerous Thruway Motorcoach routes. One route serves the cities of Marysville, Oroville, Chico, Corning, Red Bluff and Redding with additional service to Yreka and even Medford, Oregon. A second serves the cities of Roseville, Rocklin, Auburn, Colfax, Truckee, Reno and Sparks. The third and final thruway motorcoach route serves Placerville, Lake Tahoe, Stateline Casinos, and Carson City, Nevada. Each of these routes provides multiple frequencies each day.
Sacramento has the second busiest Amtrak station in California and the seventh busiest in the country.
Altamont Corridor Express commuter rail service is expected to be routed through Sacramento in 2020. This service will utilize the Union Pacific's Sacramento Subdivision, the route of the original California Zephyr, where additional passenger capacity is available.
Sacramento is expected to serve as the northern terminus of the California High-Speed Rail system.
Sacramento International Airport is a regional hub.
Sacramento International Airport (IATA: SMF, ICAO: KSMF, FAA LID: SMF) is a public airport 10 miles (16 kilometers) northwest of downtown Sacramento, in Sacramento County, California. It is run by Sacramento County. Southwest Airlines currently accounts for half the airline passengers. Other airlines include Delta, United, Spirit Airlines, American Airlines and Alaska Airlines. Sacramento International Airport handles flights to and from various US destinations (including Hawaii) as well as Mexico, Canada and connecting flights to Europe, Asia, and South America, and served more than 10 million passengers in 2016.
The airport is best known for its red rabbit installation by Lawrence Argent entitled "Leap".
Other transportation options
The Sacramento RT Light Rail on K Street
The city and its suburbs are served by Sacramento Regional Transit District, which ranks as the eleventh busiest in the United States. Sac RT is a bus and light-rail system, with 274 buses and 76 light-rail vehicles providing service for 58,200 daily passengers. The three light-rail lines (Blue, Gold, & Green) is a 42.9 mi (69.0 km) system with 54 stations. The Gold Line was extended east as far as the city of Folsom, and more recently the Blue Line was extended south from Meadowview Rd to Cosumnes River College. Sacramento's light rail system goes to the Sacramento Valley Rail Station, Cosumnes River College Station in south Sacramento, and north to Watt/I-80 where I-80 and Business 80 meet. The light-rail Blue & Gold Lines have 15-minute weekday headways and 30-minute weekday evening and weekend/holiday headways; the Green Line has 30-minute weekday headways and no weekend service. Route 142 is an express bus line to/from downtown to Sacramento International Airport. There are expansion plans to extend the Green Line to the airport and the Blue Line to the City of Roseville through the City of Citrus Heights. Yolobus provides bus service to West Sacramento and Yolo County.
Greyhound Lines provides intercity bus service to Portland, Reno, Los Angeles, and San Francisco from its new station along Richards Boulevard. Intercity bus service to San Francisco and Sparks, Nevada is offered by Megabus.
Bicycling is an increasingly popular transportation mode in Sacramento, which enjoys a mild climate and flat terrain. Bicycling is especially common in the older neighborhoods of Sacramento's center, such as Alkali Flat, Midtown, McKinley Park, Land Park, and East Sacramento. Many employees who work downtown commute by bicycle from suburban communities on a dedicated bicycle path on the American River Parkway. Sacramento was designated as a Silver Level Bicycle Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists in September 2006. The advocacy organization Sacramento Area Bicycle Advocates co-sponsors the Sacramento Area Council of Governments' May is Bike Month campaign.
There is a commuter bus service from Yolo County on Yolobus, from Solano County on FAST, on two bus lines from Yuba County's Yuba Sutter Transit, from Amador Transit's Sacramento Line, on Placer County Transit's Auburn to Light Rail Line, and from San Joaquin County on several SMART bus lines.
See also: List of people from Sacramento
As of 2015, the City of Sacramento has 13 sister cities. They are:
Date of partnership
August 15, 2012
December 15, 2009
December 12, 1989
December 6, 1988
October 16, 1984
March 21, 1989
June 8, 1961
March 17, 1981
September 26, 2013
February 28, 2006
San Juan de Oriente
February 28, 2006
July 22, 1997
July 12, 1990
List of cities and towns in California
List of mayors of Sacramento, California
List of people from Sacramento, California
Northern California Megaregion
Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District
University Arboretum at California State University, Sacramento
Tower Theatre (Sacramento, California)
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the capital to the town of Vallejo which, passing both houses, was approved by. Francisco . Monterey . San Jose . Vallejo . Benicia . Sacr . the Governor on February 4, 1851. 5 . California’s first State Capitol site is now marked with a plaque across from the Plaza de Cesar Chavez on South Market . Street in downtown San Jose. San Francisco Monterey San Jose
The state capital location was usually chosen for the city’s population size, a city of historical importance like what town in that state was settled first, or even a central location. The list below is all 50 state capitals and their respective state in alphabetical order. You can even get more fun and interesting facts about that state by ...
The state capitals are in cities of each of the 50 states. It’s where the seat of the government is located. Some of the state capitals are the largest city in that state, but that’s not always the case. The state capital location was usually chosen for the city’s population size, a city of historical importance like what town in that state was settled first, or even a central location.
The list below is all 50 state capitals and their respective state in alphabetical order. You can even get more fun and interesting facts about that state by clicking the state below.
Click to Download or Print List
Use the map below to see where each state capital is located
Next: Test your state capitals knowledge with our state capitals quiz!
“The immigration of thousands of “Forty-niners” in search of gold prompted California's admission as the 31st state into the Union in 1850, thus creating the need for a state capital. California did not have a permanent seat of government until 1860.
The capital city of California is Sacramento. It is in the northern half of the state. It evolved naturally and is not a pre-planned city. The discovery of gold in nearby Sutter’s Mill in the mid 1800’s was part of the reason Sacramento developed as it did.
Though Senator Capitol Kitty passed away in 2004, her memory lives in. You can even visit her resting place near the south entrance of the State Capitol. 9. Within the California State Capitol building is a museum containing a collection of artworks such as paintings, sculptures, and murals.
Dr. Natalie Zaragoza is a licensed marriage and family therapist and part of the Frame Therapy community.
Home to intimate nightclubs, amphitheaters under the stars, and indie concert halls, here are the best California music venues to check out!
From yoga classes on the beach to SUP yoga in the harbor, here are some of the best outdoor yoga experiences in California.
Explore the diverse landscapes of the state on foot with the best walking tours in California.
The city of Sacramento is the capital of the state of California, and it is called in English Sacramento . The city of Sacramento is located in central California, and the geographical area in which it is located is called the Sacramento Valley, or in English the Sacramento Valley .
This is a list of United States state capital cities. Each city is the center of government for a state in the United States, in the capitol building. The capital city with the fewest people is Montpelier, Vermont, while the capital city with the most people is Phoenix, Arizona.
States (purple) whose capital is also that state's largest city by population (2016 estimate).
The dates listed in the following table indicate the years it has continuously served as the state's sole capital. Most states have changed their capital city at least once. In the case of the thirteen original states, "statehood" in the table refers to its date of ratification of the United States Constitution.
State capitals of the United States
Rank in state
Rank in US
Largest capital by municipal land area.
Largest capital by population.
Largest capital by population to not be the most populated city in its state.
Longest-serving capital in terms of statehood.
Largest capital by metropolitan area population.
Smallest capital by land area.
Longest continuously serving capital.
Shortest-serving current state capital.
Salt Lake City
Smallest capital by population.
Smallest capital by population to also be the most populated city in its state.
The California State Capitol is the seat of the Government of California, located in Sacramento, the state capital of California.n...nCalifornia State CapitolLocationCapitol Mall Sacramento, CaliforniaCoordinates38 4′36″N 121 9′37″WCoordinates: 38 4′36″N 121 9′37″WConstruction started1860Completed1874
15-07-2019 · The State Capitals: California. Sacramento is the state capital of California. With a history of human habitation going back thousands of years with Native Americans, its European habitation is relatively recent. Here is the story of how Sacramento became a city, and then the capital of the state of California.
Sacramento is the state capital of California. With a history of human habitation going back thousands of years with Native Americans, its European habitation is relatively recent. Here is the story of how Sacramento became a city, and then the capital of the state of California.
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As the state capital of California, Sacramento is also the county seat of Sacramento County. With a population of just over a half-million, it is the sixth largest city in California, as well as the ninth largest state capital in the country. It is also the fastest-growing city in California, with a huge cultural and economic influence on the metropolitan area, and is also a major hub of education, being the home of both the University of California at Davis and Sacramento State University.
With attractions like the California Museum, the California Hall of Fame, the Crocker Art Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park, and the California State Capital Museum, Sacramento is a big draw for tourists. It is also a center for the so-called “hipster” movement, being called the most “hipster” city in California. In addition, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project dubbed Sacramento as America’s Most Diverse City in 2002.
The city has a long history, going back thousands of years with human habitation. The Nisenan Native American people lived in the area for probably thousands of years before European explorers first arrived there. The Plains Miwok people also called Sacramento home. These were hunter-gatherer people who only left the barest archaeological trace of their existence, subsisting on what food they could find in the area, rather than cultivating it. However, unlike other hunter-gatherer tribes, who were nomadic, these tribes were fairly settled, having learned to store bulbs and root vegetables during the winter. This allowed them to have villages, so today’s scientists do know they were there.
Europeans are first known to have come to the area in 1808 when a Spanish explorer named Gabriel Moraga came to the area and named it. A member of Moraga’s expedition wrote a description of Sacramento at the time they came to it:
“Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths. The air was like champagne, and (the Spaniards) drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. “¡Es como el sagrado sacramento! (It’s like the Blessed Sacrament.)” The valley and the river were then christened after the “Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ.”
The first American to come to Sacramento came in 1839, arriving at the juncture of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a land grant from Mexico for fifty thousand acres in hand. The following year, he and his friends built and established Sutter’s Fort, which was a huge building made of adobe with eighteen-foot high walls that were three feet thick. The fort was virtually impenetrable.
Sutter officially represented Mexico when he went there, rather than America, and he called his settlement New Helvetia, which was a name inspired by a place in Switzerland. He was the only political authority in the area at the time and the sole dispenser of justice. Eventually, though, new settlers came as the American frontier opened and settlers came west. By the time the area began to open up to new settlers, Sutter owned an orchard of ten acres and had thirteen thousand cattle, making him a huge financial success. His Fort Sutter was a common stop for those who were migrating west. Sutter went on to start the agriculture industry in Sacramento in 1847 when he brought in two thousand fruit trees. The same year he brought in the trees, he also built a sawmill, looking to increase his economic empire.
Gold was discovered near Sutter’s mill in 1848, about fifty miles north of the fort. At this discovery, the Gold Rush was on and large numbers of fortune hunters came to Sacramento, significantly boosting the population, making the village a healthy town. The same year gold was discovered, Sutter’s son, John Sutter, Jr., came to town. The son wanted to help his father resolve the debt he had acquired in building his agricultural empire. The arrival of the gold seekers did not help Sutter’s situation, as they happily squatted on un-watched portions of his land, and made off with his property if they could manage it. The Gold Rush was not a good thing for Sutter.
To accommodate the new settlers, Sutter’s son began laying out the City of Sacramento the same year he arrived, doing so with his business partner, Sam Brannan. The senior Sutter was against this but was in no financial position to object. The new city was two miles south of the elder Sutter’s settlement of New Helvetia. The new city included twenty-six lettered and thirty-one numbered streets. The city was an overnight huge commercial success, while the senior Sutter’s fort, mill, and town of Sutterville all failed. This caused some bitterness between father and son.
Contemporaneous illustration of Sutter’s Fort in the 1840s. (Wikipedia)
The City of Sacramento adopted a charter the year after Sutter, Jr. laid out the plan for it, and the year after that, the state of California recognized it as an official city. This makes Sacramento the oldest incorporated city in the state. Despite floods, fires, and an epidemic of cholera in its early years, Sacramento’s close proximity to the Mother Lode in the Sierra Nevada mountains allowed it to continue to grow and prosper, and it soon attained a population of more than ten thousand.
The legislature of California moved to Sacramento in 1854 (the previous capital had been in Monterey). When the state’s first Constitutional Convention was held five years previously, the capital was elected to be San Jose, and that is where California officially became a state. The capital then moved to Vallejo and Benicia, before finally settling on Sacramento. It was named as the permanent state capital in 1879 and has been so ever since.
Today, Sacramento offers something for everyone, which is what makes it such a popular tourist destination. With a rich history and vibrant contemporary culture, Sacramento is the place to be in California.
at this point, there was much discussion over the location of the state capital the state supreme court actually ruled the capital was still san jose, but later reversed itself. other prominent cities, including san francisco, oakland and san jose made proposals to be a capitol site, but in 1860, sacramento once again won out with the area …
The state capital of California is Sacramento, whose name was derived from the Spanish word “sakramento,” meaning “sacrament.” The decision to make Sacramento the capital was made in the state’s early history, when it was known as the center of the infamous Gold Rush period.
23-07-2021 · 484 rowsCalifornia is split into 58 counties and has 482 municipalities. One county, San Francisco, is …
Location of California in the United States
Skyline of Los Angeles
Balboa Park in San Diego
Skyline of San Jose
Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco
Skyline of Fresno
California State Capitol in Sacramento
Aerial view of the Port of Long Beach
Lake Merritt in Oakland
Truxton Tower in Bakersfield
Disneyland in Anaheim
California is a state in the Western United States. It is the state with the most people, as 37,253,956 people lived there in 2010.
California is split into 58 counties and has 482 municipalities. One county, San Francisco, is a city-county, which means it is both a municipality and county. In California law, there is no difference between a city and town. This means municipalites can use either name. At the 2010 census 30,908,614 people in California lived in an urban area. This is 82.97% of people in the state.
The largest municipality by population is Los Angeles, which had 3,792,621 people living there in 2010. The smallest is Vernon, with 112 people living there in 2010.
Cities and towns
State capital and county seat
December 22, 1970
December 8, 1982
April 19, 1854
September 22, 1908
July 11, 1903
July 1, 2001
September 16, 1901
June 2, 1915
January 1, 1992
March 18, 1876
January 16, 1956
January 16, 1912
February 6, 1872
November 28, 1988
August 5, 1903
February 2, 1858
San Luis Obispo
July 10, 1911
May 29, 1959
December 21, 1960
San Luis Obispo
July 2, 1979
September 12, 1923
August 16, 1922
May 2, 1888
June 26, 1913
September 11, 1979
December 29, 1898
January 11, 1898
January 25, 1956
February 6, 1913
September 30, 1947
November 18, 1912
November 7, 1927
August 1, 1961
September 3, 1957
October 29, 1926
December 24, 1896
March 27, 1850
April 4, 1878
January 28, 1914
Big Bear Lake
November 28, 1980
June 26, 1903
May 6, 1903
April 23, 1910
July 21, 1916
July 26, 1957
April 6, 1908
February 23, 1917
January 21, 1948
November 27, 1961
February 1, 1992
January 27, 1953
July 8, 1911
June 6, 1908
April 5, 1991
April 16, 1908
December 10, 1965
December 1, 1990
February 28, 1919
January 6, 1886
March 28, 1964
March 28, 1952
December 1, 1990
January 11, 1949
July 16, 1952
October 31, 1916
September 28, 1965
February 20, 1968
November 16, 1981
February 25, 1918
April 24, 1956
January 8, 1872
February 28, 1910
December 1, 1991
February 7, 1923
November 28, 1911
January 1, 1997
October 3, 1907
March 18, 1964
November 14, 1980
February 28, 1872
February 27, 1912
December 13, 1946
April 3, 1906
February 23, 1910
August 5, 1924
July 11, 1887
June 16, 1868
January 28, 1960
May 11, 1888
February 9, 1905
August 11, 1914
August 6, 1907
July 13, 1896
December 11, 1890
June 10, 1916
June 29, 1953
July 16, 1963
August 14, 1901
April 13, 1854
November 10, 1960
September 7, 1917
October 10, 1955
July 24, 1956
March 22, 1911
January 1, 1989
July 1, 1982
March 28, 1917
July 15, 1959
Del Rey Oaks
September 3, 1953
April 13, 1915
Desert Hot Springs
September 25, 1963
April 18, 1989
January 6, 1906
March 30, 1878
December 23, 1908
May 24, 1935
December 17, 1956
August 22, 1957
February 1, 1982
August 7, 1909
East Palo Alto
July 1, 1983
October 1, 2010
November 12, 1912
April 16, 1908
August 23, 1917
November 18, 1912
January 18, 1917
July 1, 2000
December 8, 1896
October 1, 1986
March 12, 1957
October 8, 1888
March 13, 1878
April 18, 1856
March 2, 1911
March 2, 1931
December 12, 1903
October 5, 1960
August 28, 1893
July 10, 1914
September 17, 1914
April 20, 1946
June 25, 1952
August 5, 1889
March 16, 1872
January 20, 1906
April 27, 1971
June 13, 1957
June 15, 1908
January 23, 1956
October 12, 1885
February 15, 1904
August 16, 1946
June 18, 1956
September 11, 1930
March 12, 1870
February 15, 1906
November 13, 1911
February 1, 2002
January 14, 1947
November 30, 1978
March 13, 1893
January 7, 1947
November 23, 1905
San Luis Obispo
December 21, 1959
August 3, 1946
November 11, 1915
Half Moon Bay
July 15, 1959
August 12, 1891
April 9, 1964
July 12, 1922
March 11, 1876
February 20, 1867
January 20, 1910
December 15, 1900
January 14, 1907
July 1, 1988
January 19, 1961
November 24, 1987
May 5, 1910
March 26, 1872
July 1, 1908
December 9, 1972
February 17, 1909
September 1, 1906
May 3, 1951
July 12, 1904
July 18, 1956
July 14, 1967
May 16, 1930
June 18, 1957
February 7, 1908
March 23, 1953
December 28, 1971
August 6, 1957
May 14, 1923
December 5, 1905
July 1, 2011
July 2, 1946
February 9, 1911
May 29, 1908
La Cañada Flintridge
November 30, 1976
January 20, 1925
La Habra Heights
December 4, 1978
February 16, 1912
March 23, 1960
October 26, 1955
August 1, 1956
May 1, 1982
August 20, 1906
July 29, 1968
June 29, 1927
December 20, 1991
December 1, 1989
March 24, 1999
April 9, 1888
December 20, 1991
April 30, 1888
April 16, 1954
November 22, 1977
March 1, 1908
July 1, 1989
December 28, 1959
July 1, 1977
July 4, 1900
August 7, 1890
February 28, 1910
January 22, 1947
April 1, 1876
September 11, 1922
December 6, 1906
September 29, 1970
June 30, 1964
August 13, 1888
December 13, 1897
December 17, 1984
March 1, 1960
December 1, 1952
Los Altos Hills
January 27, 1956
April 4, 1850
May 8, 1907
August 10, 1887
July 21, 1901
July 21, 1921
March 27, 1907
March 28, 1991
August 20, 1984
December 12, 1912
June 5, 1918
July 25, 1911
November 13, 1975
April 1, 1876
February 5, 1851
September 2, 1924
July 18, 1957
June 17, 1942
October 1, 2008
November 23, 1927
April 1, 1889
September 1, 1900
January 14, 1948
January 26, 1954
March 31, 1988
August 6, 1884
December 15, 1887
January 28, 1909
April 25, 1956
May 14, 1957
October 16, 1920
June 14, 1890
May 29, 1916
July 1, 1983
November 13, 1974
December 3, 1984
November 10, 1906
San Luis Obispo
July 17, 1964
May 31, 1905
November 7, 1902
July 1, 1991
March 23, 1872
September 17, 1887
October 30, 1913
April 19, 1856
September 22, 1955
June 10, 1908
September 1, 1906
December 28, 1964
August 26, 1957
January 20, 1960
November 24, 1906
May 4, 1852
July 1, 1999
July 3, 1888
August 5, 1921
December 10, 1891
April 6, 1888
January 20, 1948
July 1, 1985
November 11, 1909
January 3, 1906
June 30, 1903
July 5, 1889
November 22, 1957
November 26, 1973
April 20, 1938
August 24, 1962
April 23, 1894
Palos Verdes Estates
December 20, 1939
November 27, 1979
January 30, 1957
November 15, 1921
June 19, 1886
San Luis Obispo
March 11, 1889
December 22, 1919
May 26, 1911
April 12, 1858
January 29, 1958
January 31, 1907
June 25, 1903
San Luis Obispo
April 25, 1946
June 25, 1903
December 2, 1926
May 13, 1854
November 14, 1961
June 18, 1894
February 8, 1917
July 11, 1908
January 6, 1888
March 24, 1948
May 7, 1902
May 16, 1946
July 14, 1964
December 1, 1980
July 1, 2003
November 30, 1977
August 3, 1973
Rancho Palos Verdes
September 7, 1973
Rancho Santa Margarita
January 1, 2000
March 31, 1876
October 4, 1887
December 3, 1888
April 29, 1892
May 11, 1867
February 18, 1913
November 17, 1911
August 7, 1905
November 29, 1963
February 23, 1965
January 6, 1894
November 27, 1945
August 23, 1922
October 11, 1883
February 24, 1893
August 28, 1962
January 24, 1957
Rolling Hills Estates
September 18, 1957
August 4, 1959
April 10, 1909
August 21, 1908
February 27, 1850
March 24, 1876
March 4, 1874
April 9, 1907
August 10, 1869
December 23, 1914
July 8, 1925
February 28, 1928
March 27, 1850
August 4, 1960
August 31, 1911
City and county
April 15, 1850
April 24, 1913
April 20, 1888
February 14, 1920
March 27, 1850
San Juan Bautista
May 4, 1896
San Juan Capistrano
April 19, 1961
March 21, 1872
San Luis Obispo
San Luis Obispo
February 16, 1856
January 28, 1963
April 25, 1913
September 4, 1894
April 27, 1948
February 18, 1874
July 1, 1983
May 31, 1960
May 9, 1911
June 1, 1886
April 9, 1850
July 5, 1852
December 15, 1987
March 31, 1866
Santa Fe Springs
May 15, 1957
September 12, 1905
November 30, 1886
April 22, 1902
March 26, 1868
December 1, 1980
October 22, 1956
September 4, 1893
August 2, 1966
October 27, 1915
October 13, 1954
June 13, 1902
March 15, 1893
January 20, 1938
July 2, 1993
February 2, 1907
April 22, 1924
October 10, 1969
July 1, 1986
March 9, 1921
May 1, 1985
September 3, 1883
May 1, 1851
South El Monte
July 30, 1958
January 20, 1923
South Lake Tahoe
November 30, 1965
March 2, 1888
South San Francisco
September 19, 1908
June 4, 1956
July 23, 1850
October 9, 1868
December 24, 1912
August 24, 1900
February 11, 1913
November 7, 1910
August 13, 1909
July 5, 1906
December 1, 1989
May 25, 1960
October 7, 1964
June 23, 1964
May 21, 1921
July 22, 1910
November 7, 1870
March 23, 1993
April 5, 1888
March 1, 1937
February 15, 1908
September 21, 1927
November 23, 1987
March 8, 1876
January 26, 1959
May 15, 1906
August 9, 1892
March 30, 1868
April 2, 1866
September 22, 1905
September 21, 1962
January 11, 1962
February 27, 1874
January 28, 1963
January 19, 1959
October 21, 1914
December 22, 1945
November 7, 1969
March 30, 1868
January 25, 1961
February 17, 1923
November 29, 1984
January 1, 1987
December 11, 1981
March 27, 1957
June 30, 1934
April 23, 1874
February 25, 1898
July 1, 2008
May 17, 1920
November 19, 1888
January 16, 1886
July 1, 1992
February 9, 1898
September 23, 1941
February 22, 1871
November 16, 1956
November 2, 1967
February 4, 1965
April 21, 1857
January 23, 1908
November 27, 1989
November 27, 1991
↑ 1.01.11.21.3"GCT-PH1 – Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – State — Place and (in selected states) County Subdivision". 2010 United States Census. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
↑"Learn About Cities". League of California Cities. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
↑California Government Code Sections 34502 and 56722.
↑ 4.04.1"California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on February 21, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
↑"Census 2010: Table 3A — Total Population by Race (Hispanic exclusive) and Hispanic or Latino: 2010". California Department of Finance. Archived from the original (Excel) on November 24, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
↑"Corrections to 2010 Census Population and Housing Units Counts in the State of California" (PDF). California Department of Finance. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2012.
↑ 7.07.1"City of Eastvale" (PDF). Riverside County Transportation and Land Management Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
↑ 8.08.1"City of Jurupa Valley" (PDF). Riverside County Transportation and Land Management Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
↑Long, Percy V. (1911). "Consolidated City and County Government of San Francisco". Proceedings of the American Political Science Association. 8 (Eighth Annual Meeting): 109–121. doi:10.2307/3038399. JSTOR 3038399.
Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_cities_and_towns_in_California&oldid=7675077"
Sacramento, One of Many California Capitols. California did not have a permanent seat of government until 1854. Cities vied for the opportunity to house the state capital for the power, prestige, and economic benefit that accompanied it. Four capitol buildings existed in other cities before Sacramento became the permanent site.
(Show more) Population: (2020) 39,538,223...(Show more) Governor: Gavin Newsom (Democrat)...(Show more) Date Of Admission: September 9, 1850...(Show more) U.S. Senators: Dianne Feinstein (Democrat) Kamala D. Harris (Democrat)...(Show more)
California, constituent state of the United States of America. It was admitted as the 31st state of the union on September 9, 1850, and by the early 1960s it was the most populous U.S. state. No version of the origin of California’s name has been fully accepted, but there is wide support for the contention that it derived from an early 16th-century Spanish novel, Las sergas de Esplandián (“The Adventures of Esplandián”), that described a paradisiacal island full of gold and precious stones called California. The influence of the Spanish settlers of the 18th and 19th centuries is evident in California’s architecture and place-names. The capital is Sacramento.
Discover the contrasting landscapes of California from Mount Whitney to Death Valley
The diverse landscapes of California from Mount Whitney to Death Valley.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.See all videos for this article
California is bounded by the U.S. state of Oregon to the north, by the states of Nevada and Arizona to the east, by the Mexican state of Baja California to the south, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west. From the rainy northern coast to the parched Colorado Desert in the south, and from the Mediterranean-like central and southern littoral to the volcanic plateau of the far northeast, California is a land of stunning physical contrasts. Both the highest and lowest points in the 48 conterminous states are in the state of California—Mount Whitney and Death Valley, respectively. The former is the culminating summit of the Sierra Nevada, one of the major mountain ranges of North America.
Sand dunes at Death Valley National Monument, California.
You may be familiar with New York and Nebraska, but are there 11 U.S. states with names that begin with the letter "N?" See if your knowledge of names is nimble—or numb—in this quiz of states and cities.
The fluid nature of the state’s social, economic, and political life—shaped so largely by the influx of people from other states and countries—has for centuries made California a laboratory for testing new modes of living. California’s population, concentrated mostly along the coast, is the most urban in the United States, with more than three-fourths of the state’s people living in the Los Angeles, San Francisco, and San Diego metropolitan areas. Despite its urbanization and the loss of land to industry, California still leads the country in agricultural production. About one-half of the state’s land is federally owned. National parks located throughout the state are devoted to the preservation of nature and natural resources. Area 163,695 square miles (423,967 square km). Population (2020) 39,538,223.
The heartland of California is the Central Valley, which runs for 450 miles (725 km) through the centre of the state, forming a trough between the Coast Ranges to the west and the Sierra Nevada to the east. The valley is the state’s agricultural centre. Its single opening is the delta through which the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers drain into San Francisco Bay. The valley is sealed off by the Cascade Range to the northeast and by the Klamath Mountains to the northwest. In the far north the terrain is rugged and heavily forested, becoming wetter on the coastal side and drier and barren in the higher northeast. In the south the Central Valley is closed off by the transverse ranges, most notably the Tehachapi Mountains, which are regarded as a dividing wall between southern and central California.
CaliforniaEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Most of eastern California is desert. The sparsely settled northeastern corner of the state is a jumble of barren plains and mountains, as well as a volcanic plateau. In the east-central region is the Trans-Sierra desert, which extends along the sheer east escarpment of the Sierra Nevada range and comprises part of the vast interstate Great Basin of the Basin and Range Province. The Trans-Sierra desert ranges from 2,000 to 7,400 feet (600 to 2,300 metres) above sea level. Its largest towns are in the Owens Valley, which was a fertile farmland until its groundwater flow was diverted to Los Angeles through a mammoth series of conduits built in 1908–13.
The Sierra Nevada rises just to the west of the Trans-Sierra desert. The eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada is sheer, dropping some 10,000 feet (3,000 metres) within a 10-mile (16-km) stretch near Owens Lake. On the west the range slopes in gradually declining foothills toward the Central Valley, comprising the San Joaquin and Sacramento river valleys. From the wall that rises near Lassen Peak in the north, the Sierra Nevada extends south for 430 miles (700 km) to the fringes of Los Angeles. Aside from Mount Whitney (14,494 feet [4,418 metres] above sea level), 10 other peaks in the Sierra Nevada exceed 14,000 feet (4,200 metres) in elevation. East-west passes are few but high; some are found at more than 9,000 feet (2,700 metres) in elevation. There are three national parks in the Sierra Nevada: Kings Canyon, Sequoia, and Yosemite. The last, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1978, rises from the purplish foothills of the Mother Lode Country and extends through the ice-carved valleys of the Merced and Tuolumne rivers. Its valleys feature waterfalls and granite domes.
In the southeast lies the Mojave Desert, which, at more than 25,000 square miles (65,000 square km), occupies one-sixth of the land area of California. Its landmarks are broad basins and eroded mountains, fault blocks, and alluvial surfaces, most of which are more than 2,000 feet (600 metres) above sea level. Vegetation includes the evergreen creosote bush, yucca, saltbush, burroweed, encelia, cottonwood, and mesquite. Higher up are juniper and piñon pine.
Brittlebush (Encelia farinosa).
Copyright Louisa Preston/Photo Researchers
Just south of the Mojave Desert is the lower Colorado Desert, an extension of the Sonoran Desert, which begins in the Coachella Valley. The Colorado Desert descends to the Imperial Valley adjacent to the Mexican border. The valley is a heavily irrigated agricultural area known for its winter crops. More than 4,000 square miles (10,500 square km) of the desert lie below sea level, including the 300-square-mile (800-square-km) Salton Sea, a lake with no outlet that was created in 1905–07 when the nearby Colorado River broke out of its channel.
The roughly 1,100-mile- (1,800-km-) long coastline of California is mountainous, most dramatically so in the Santa Lucia Range south of San Francisco, where towering cliffs rise about 800 feet (240 metres) above the ocean. Hills of lesser elevation flank entrances to the coast’s three major natural harbours, at San Diego, San Francisco, and Eureka. Coastal mountains, made up of many indistinct chains, are from about 20 to 40 miles (30 to 65 km) in width and from 2,000 to 8,000 feet (600 to 2,400 metres) in elevation.
Southern California’s dense settlement lies along a coastal plateau and in valleys ranging from about 10 to 60 miles (16 to 100 km) inland. Along the coast north of the Tehachapi Mountains, the population becomes sparser, though the central coastal region has grown rapidly since the 1990s. The populous coastal area around San Francisco Bay gives way to the less-developed northern coast, where lumbering and fishing villages lie beside creeks and rivers flowing from the Coast Ranges. This is the area of coastal redwood forests and Redwood National Park, which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980.
Redwood trees in Redwood National Park, northwestern California.
The 800-mile (1,300-km) San Andreas Fault is a major fault line running through most of California. Tectonic movement along the fault has caused massive earthquakes, including the San Francisco earthquake of 1906. The Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Gabriel fault zone in metropolitan Los Angeles have produced several major earthquakes, though the destructive quake centred in the Los Angeles suburb of Northridge in 1994 occurred along one of the San Andreas’s larger secondary faults. Separate fault systems in the Sierra Nevada and the Klamath Mountains are tectonically active as well.
Water is chronically scarce in southern California and the desert regions, but excesses of rain and snowmelt cause winter flooding along the rivers of the northern coast. Complex systems of dams and aqueducts transport water from north to south, but not without the protests of those who regard the export of water from their regions as a bar to future growth or as a threat to environmental balance. The Colorado River Aqueduct at the Arizona border carries water from that river across the southern California desert and mountains to serve the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The California State Water Project, launched in 1960, is the largest water-transfer system ever undertaken. It is designed to deliver water daily from the Feather River (a tributary of the Sacramento River) in north-central California to communities as far south as the Mexican border.
The largest lake of the Sierra Nevada is Lake Tahoe, astride the California-Nevada border at an elevation of 6,229 feet (1,899 metres). A mountain-ringed alpine lake about 193 square miles (500 square km) in area, it has among the world’s greatest average depth and a maximum depth of about 1,640 feet (500 metres). Elsewhere in the Sierra lie hundreds of smaller lakes, some above the timberline in regions of tumbled granite and smooth-walled canyons. West of the Sierra Nevada is Clear Lake; at 67 square miles (174 square km), it is the largest natural lake wholly within the state. On the eastern flank of the Sierra are Mono Lake and Owens Lake, both long endangered by agricultural development.
The California State constitution was drafted in Monterey and later accepted by the U.S. Congress. The state capital was in Pueblo de San Jose from December 15, 1849 to May 1, 1851. Historical marker indicating the site of the former state capital in Pueblo de San Jose. Then the capital moved to Vallejo from January 5, 1852 to January 12 1852.
State Capitol Catch a glimpse of government in action With its noble columns and snappy cupola, all painted wedding-cake white, California’s State Capitol building looks like a mini replica of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. Take a free docent-led tour to learn about the 1869 building’s architecture and history.
California es uno de los cincuenta estados que, junto con Washington D. C., forman los Estados Unidos de América.Su capital es Sacramento, y su ciudad más poblada, Los Ángeles.Está ubicado en la región oeste del país, división Pacífico, limitando al norte con Oregón, al este con Nevada, al sureste con el río Colorado que lo separa de Arizona, al sur con Baja California y al oeste con ...
California es uno de los cincuenta estados que, junto con Washington D. C., forman los Estados Unidos de América. Su capital es Sacramento, y su ciudad más poblada, Los Ángeles. Está ubicado en la región oeste del país, división Pacífico, limitando al norte con Oregón, al este con Nevada, al sureste con el río Colorado que lo separa de Arizona, al sur con Baja California (México) y al oeste con el océano Pacífico. Con 39.538.223 habitantes, según el Censo de los Estados Unidos de 2020, es el estado más poblado y con 423 970 km², el tercero más extenso, por detrás de Alaska y Texas. Fue admitido en la Unión el 9 de septiembre de 1850 como el estado número 31.
Además, cuenta con las segunda y quinta áreas más pobladas de la nación, el Gran Los Ángeles y el Área de la Bahía de San Francisco y ocho de las ciudades más pobladas del país: Los Ángeles, San Diego, San José, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach y Oakland.
La zona estuvo poblada desde hace milenios por los nativos americanos antes de las primeras expediciones europeas en el siglo XVI. Estos pobladores se repartían en 105 pueblos indígenas americanos que hablaban los idiomas de seis familias lingüísticas diferentes. La Corona española colonizó las áreas de la costa del territorio en 1769 antes de que este pasara a formar parte de México tras la Guerra de la Independencia de México (1810-1821). California fue parte del territorio mexicano hasta la guerra entre México y los Estados Unidos de 1846-1848. Al término de la guerra y como condición para la paz, la República Mexicana fue obligada a ceder el territorio a los Estados Unidos en el Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo. La Fiebre del Oro en el período 1848-1849 provocó una inmigración de 90 000 estadounidenses procedentes del resto del país. Finalmente, California se convirtió en el trigésimo primer Estado de Estados Unidos en 1850.
Si California fuera una nación independiente, sería la quinta economía del mundo, con un producto interior bruto (PIB) de alrededor de 3.20 billones de dólares (datos de 2021) lo que representa el 12.0% del PIB de Estados Unidos, que asciende a un total de 20.5 billones de dólares. Las principales actividades económicas del estado son la agricultura, el ocio, la tecnología, la energía eléctrica y el turismo. En California se localizan algunas de las ciudades económicas más importantes del mundo, tales como Los Ángeles (entretenimiento, ocio), el Valle Central (agricultura), Silicon Valley (informática y alta tecnología) y el Valle de Napa (vino).
Artículo principal: Toponimia de California
La teoría más respaldada es que la palabra California deriva del nombre de un paraíso ficticio, la isla de California, habitado por amazonas negras bajo el mando de la reina Calafia. Este mito aparece en una novela de caballerías de 1510, Las sergas de Esplandián, escrita por el escritor de aventuras castellano Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. El reino de Calafia o Califia es descrito por Montalvo como una tierra remota habitada por grifos y otras extrañas bestias y rico en oro:
Es conocido que a mano derecha de las Indias hay una isla llamada California, muy cerca de esa parte del paraíso terrenal, que está habitada por mujeres negras, sin un solo hombre entre ellas, que viven al estilo de las amazonas. Tenían el cuerpo robusto, con corazones fuertes y apasionados y grandes virtudes. La isla misma es una de las más salvajes del mundo por sus escarpadas y llamativas rocas. Sus armas están todas hechas de oro. La isla está repleta de oro y piedras preciosas por todas partes, hasta el punto que no hay otros metales.
California es el quinto nombre de origen europeo más antiguo en Estados Unidos. Fue impuesto en la expedición española dirigida por Diego de Becerra y Fortún Jiménez, que denominaron isla de California al extremo inferior de la península de California cuando desembarcaron allí en 1533 por mandato de Hernán Cortés.
Posteriormente la palabra California llegó a referirse a una región más amplia, compuesta por la península de California, en México, y un vasto territorio en Estados Unidos que abarcó el del actual estado de California más la totalidad o parte de los de Nevada, Utah, Arizona y Wyoming.
Mapa topográfico de California
California es el tercer estado más grande de Estados Unidos por área, después de Alaska y Texas. California a menudo se divide geográficamente en dos regiones, el sur de California, que comprende los 10 condados más al sur, y el norte de California, que comprende los 48 condados más al norte. Limita con Oregón al norte, Nevada al este y noreste, Arizona al sureste, el Océano Pacífico al oeste y comparte una frontera internacional con el estado mexicano de Baja California al sur (con el que forma parte de la región californiana de América del Norte, junto con Baja California Sur).
En el centro del estado se encuentra el Valle Central de California, rodeado por la Sierra Nevada en el este, las cordilleras costeras en el oeste, la Cordillera de las Cascadas al norte y por las montañas de Tehachapi en el sur. El Valle Central es el corazón agrícola productivo de California.
La Sierra Nevada abarca el Valle de Yosemite, famoso por sus rocas talladas por la erosión glaciar, y el parque nacional Sequoia, hogar de las gigantescas secuoyas, los organismos vivos más grandes de la Tierra, y el Lago Tahoe, el lago más grande del estado por volumen.
El estado de California es un territorio muy diverso dividido a grandes rasgos por la cordillera de Sierra Nevada, la costa y un gran valle central. En California se encuentra el punto más alto (monte Whitney) y el más bajo (Valle de la Muerte) de los 48 estados contiguos.
El estado está dividido entre el Norte de California y el Sur de California, aunque la frontera entre ambas regiones no está muy bien definida. San Francisco es considerada como una ciudad del Norte de California y Los Ángeles como una ciudad del Sur de California, pero algunas zonas entre ambas no comparten esa misma identidad. El servicio Geológico de los Estados Unidos define al centro geográfico del estado en el punto cerca de North Fork.
Los geógrafos suelen dividir el estado en once provincias geomorfológicas con límites claramente definidos. Son, de norte a sur, las montañas Klamath, la cordillera de las Cascadas, la Placa Modoc, las cuencas y cordilleras, la cadena costera del Pacífico, el Valle Central, Sierra Nevada, las cordilleras Transversales, el desierto de Mojave, las cordilleras Peninsulares, y el desierto de Colorado. Para propósitos de explicación, también es útil reconocer a la cuenca Los Ángeles, el archipiélago del Norte, y el océano Pacífico.
Artículo principal: Clima de California
Las dunas de arena del Valle de la Muerte
Aunque la mayor parte del estado tiene un clima mediterráneo, debido al gran tamaño del estado, el clima varía desde árido a subártico, dependiendo de la latitud, elevación, y proximidad a la costa. La fresca corriente de California en alta mar a menudo crea una niebla de verano cerca de la costa. Más al interior, hay inviernos más fríos y veranos más calurosos. La moderación marítima hace que las temperaturas de verano en la costa de Los Ángeles y San Francisco sean las más suaves de todas las principales áreas metropolitanas de los Estados Unidos y que sean especialmente frescas en comparación con las áreas en la misma latitud en el interior.
Las partes del norte del estado reciben más lluvia que el sur. Las cadenas montañosas de California también influyen en el clima: algunas de las partes más lluviosas del estado son las laderas montañosas orientadas al oeste. El noroeste de California tiene un clima templado, y el Valle Central tiene un clima mediterráneo pero con temperaturas más altas que la costa. Las montañas altas, incluida la Sierra Nevada, tienen un clima alpino con notables nevadas en invierno y un calor leve a moderado en verano.
El Estado Dorado[editar]
El apodo del estado es The Golden State (El Estado Dorado), nombre que algunos suponen quizás provenga de los numerosos días en los que brilla el sol durante el año, o quizás del color dorado que pueden tomar los montes a ciertas horas del día (tal como ocurre en muchas otras partes del mundo), aunque la probabilidad más cierta de tal apodo (del mismo modo que la del apodo dado a la boca de la bahía de San Francisco: Golden Gate = Puerta Dorada) remite al periodo de la fiebre del oro.
1 213 398
1 485 053
2 377 549
3 426 861
5 677 251
6 907 387
10 586 223
15 717 204
19 953 134
23 667 902
29 760 021
33 871 648
37 253 956
39 368 078
Gráfica de evolución demográfica de California entre 1850 y
La Oficina del Censo de los Estados Unidos estima que la población de California fue de 38 041 430 habitantes al 1 de julio de 2012, un 2,1 % de incremento desde el censo de 2010. Entre 2000 y 2009, hubo un incremento natural de 3 090 016 (5 058 440 nacimientos menos 2 179 958 muertes). Durante este período, la migración internacional produjo un aumento de 1 816 633 personas, mientras que la migración interna produjo una disminución de 1 509 708, lo que resulta en una inmigración neta de 306 925 personas. Las estadísticas del Estado de California muestran una población de 38 292 687 al 1 de enero de 2009. Sin embargo, de acuerdo con el Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, desde 1990 casi 3,4 millones de californianos se han mudado a otros estados.
California es la segunda entidad subnacional más poblada del hemisferio occidental y del continente americano, tras el estado de São Paulo, en Brasil. Además, el condado de Los Ángeles ha celebrado el título de condado más poblado de Estados Unidos durante décadas, es más populoso que 42 de los estados estadounidenses. California es el hogar de ocho de las 50 ciudades más pobladas en los Estados Unidos: Los Ángeles, San Diego, San José, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long Beach, y Oakland. El centro de población del estado está localizado en el pueblo de Buttonwillow, condado de Kern.
&&&&&&&015650775.&&&&&015 650 775
&&&&&&&017029126.&&&&&017 029 126
&&&&&&&015816790.&&&&&015 816 790
&&&&&&&014956253.&&&&&014 956 253
&&&&&&&014879258.&&&&&014 879 258
Hispano o latino
&&&&&&&&04541300.&&&&&04 541 300
&&&&&&&&07687938.&&&&&07 687 938
&&&&&&&010966556.&&&&&010 966 556
&&&&&&&014013719.&&&&&014 013 719
&&&&&&&014750686.&&&&&014 750 686
&&&&&&&&01242157.&&&&&01 242 157
&&&&&&&&02710353.&&&&&02 710 353
&&&&&&&&03648860.&&&&&03 648 860
&&&&&&&&04775070.&&&&&04 775 070
&&&&&&&&05192548.&&&&&05 192 548
Negro o afroamericano
&&&&&&&&01784086.&&&&&01 784 086
&&&&&&&&02092446.&&&&&02 092 446
&&&&&&&&02181926.&&&&&02 181 926
&&&&&&&&02163804.&&&&&02 163 804
&&&&&&&&02160795.&&&&&02 160 795
Indio americano y nativo de Alaska
Hawaiano y otro isleño del Pacífico
Dos o más etnias
&&&&&&&&01072500.&&&&&01 072 500
&&&&&&&023667902.&&&&&023 667 902
&&&&&&&029760021.&&&&&029 760 021
&&&&&&&033871648.&&&&&033 871 648
&&&&&&&037253956.&&&&&037 253 956
&&&&&&&038421464.&&&&&038 421 464
La lengua oficial es el inglés, hablado en el hogar por 60,5 % de la población californiana. El español es la segunda lengua en número de hablantes, con un 35,8 % de la población. La sección 1632 del Código Civil de California reconoce el idioma español, de ahí que la ley Dymally-Alatorre sobre servicios bilingües, instituya un bilingüismo inglés-español, sin la exclusión necesaria de otras lenguas. El resto de idiomas, como chino, tagalo, vietnamita, llegan hasta el 6,08 % del total.
Los idiomas indígenas del estado, que apenas suponen unas decenas de miles de hablantes, pertenecientes sobre todo a los grupos hokano y penutio, son lenguas amenazadas: muchas de ellas son habladas solo por las generaciones más ancianas que son bilingües, mientras que muchos niños amerindios son monolingües en inglés.
total de población
Principales ciudades de California (año 2000)
Los datos de población corresponden al Censo de 2000.
Artículo principal: Anexo:Ciudades de California
La mayor parte de población de California se concentra en tres grandes áreas metropolitanas:
Gran Los Ángeles: Los Ángeles, Long Beach, Santa Ana, Anaheim, Irvine...
Área de la Bahía de San Francisco: San Francisco, San José, Oakland, Fremont, Santa Rosa...
Área metropolitana de San Diego-Tijuana: San Diego, Chula Vista, Oceanside...
Otras ciudades de importancia son Sacramento (capital del Estado), Fresno, Bakersfield, Riverside, Stockton, Modesto...
Otras ciudades importantes[editar]
Artículo principal: Economía de California
California es tradicionalmente una gran potencia económica, pionera y líder en numerosos segmentos de la industria como la aeronáutica, la técnica espacial, la informática, la electrónica, la industria médica, etc. Por ello, California sería por sí misma una de las siete potencias mundiales. También tiene una agricultura muy desarrollada, favorecida por su clima benigno.
California dispone de extensos cultivos de cítricos. En los últimos decenios ha desarrollado también la producción de vino (particularmente en el Valle Napa). Posee importantes actividades mineras como la dedicada al oro.
Silicon Valley, sede de muchas de las empresas tecnológicas más importantes del mundo.
Artículo principal: Deporte de California
California fue sede de los Juegos Olímpicos de Los Ángeles 1932, de los Juegos Olímpicos de Squaw Valley 1960 y Los Ángeles 1984, así como de la Copa Mundial de Fútbol de 1994. Actualmente se prepara para los Juegos Olímpicos de Los Ángeles 2028.
California tiene veintiún franquicias en las Grandes Ligas de deportes profesionales, muchas más que cualquier otro estado. El Área de la Bahía de San Francisco tiene siete equipos en las grandes ligas en tres ciudades, San Francisco, Oakland y San José. Mientras el Área Metropolitana de Los Ángeles es sede de once franquicias en las Grandes Ligas profesionales. San Diego tiene dos equipos de liga principales, y Sacramento también tiene dos.
Sede de algunas de las más prominentes universidades de los Estados Unidos, California tiene desde hace mucho tiempo respetados programas de deportes universitarios. En particular, los programas atléticos de UC Berkeley, USC, UCLA, Stanford y Fresno State a menudo se clasifican a nivel nacional en varios deportes universitarios. California también es sede del más antiguo de los títulos universitarios denominados "bowl", el anual Rose Bowl, y el Holiday Bowl, entre otros.
Numerosos circuitos de carreras de Estados Unidos se hallan en California. Los principales son el óvalo de Fontana, el callejero de Long Beach y los autódromos de Laguna Seca y Sears Point, así como los desaparecidos Riverside y Ontario. Además de albergar los principales certámenes estadounidenses de automovilismo y motociclismo, el Gran Premio de Long Beach fue una prueba válida para el Campeonato Mundial de Fórmula 1 y actualmente recibe a la IndyCar Series y el United SportsCar Championship, en tanto que Laguna Seca ha albergado pruebas del Campeonato Mundial de Motociclismo y el Campeonato Mundial de Superbikes.
En California se realizan numerosos torneos de golf, entre ellos el Abierto de Los Ángeles y Abierto de San Diego. Los campos de golf de Pebble Beach y Olympic han sido sede de varias ediciones del Abierto de los Estados Unidos.
En tenis, el Masters de Indian Wells pertenece al ATP World Tour Masters 1000 y WTA Premier, y el Torneo de Stanford al WTA Premier. Anteriormente se realizaron el Torneo de Los Ángeles y el Torneo de San José.
En polo se efectuó el Campeonato Mundial de Polo de 1998 en Santa Bárbara y en 2022 se efectuará la XII versión del mundial en Indio.
A continuación se muestra una lista de los principales equipos de las grandes ligas de deporte profesional de California:
En la cultura popular[editar]
↑United States Census Bureau. «Resultados de distribución poblacional del censo de 2020». census.gov. Archivado desde el original el 26 de abril de 2021. Consultado el 28 de abril de 2021.
↑«GDP by State». GDP by State | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Bureau of Economic Analysis. Consultado el 26 March 2021. https://www.bea.gov/sites/default/files/2021-06/qgdpstate0621.pdf Bureau of Economic Analysis - Full release and tables - Gross Domestic Product by State, 1st Quarter 2021. Retrieved July 4, 2021.
↑Artículo California de la extinta Enciclopedia Encarta en línea
↑«Serga» vieje a significar lo mismo que «hazaña» o «proeza» (véase el apartado Etimología en el artículo dedicado a la novela).
↑Gudde, Erwin G. and William Bright. 2004. California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names, pp.59-60
↑Lavender, David (1987). California: Land of New Beginnings. University of Nebraska Press. p. 27. ISBN 0803279248. OCLC 15315566.
↑«Online Etymology Dictionary». Etymonline.com. 24 de junio de 1957. Consultado el 2 de julio de 2010.
↑Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. pp. 11–17.
↑«Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012» (CSV). 2012 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. diciembre de 2012. Archivado desde el original el 29 de diciembre de 2012. Consultado el 22 de diciembre de 2012.
↑ ab«Table 4. Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Resident Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009» (CSV). US Census Bureau. 22 de diciembre de 2009. Archivado desde el original el 9 de junio de 2010. Consultado el 26 de.diciembre de 2009.
↑Gray, Tom; Scardamalia, Robert (septiembre de 2012). «The Great California Exodus: A Closer Look». Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Inc. Consultado el 30 de abril de 2013.
↑«Censo 2010: população do Brasil é de 190 732 694 pessoas». Consultado el 19 de septiembre de 2011.
↑«About Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services». Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services. diciembre de 2005. Archivado desde el original el 17 de abril de 2010. Consultado el 26 de diciembre de 2009.
↑Barrett, Beth (19 de septiembre de 2003). «Baby Slump In L.A. County». Los Angeles Daily News (Los Angeles Newspaper Group). pp. N4. Consultado el 26 de diciembre de 2009.
↑«Population and Population Centers by State: 2000» (TXT). United States Census 2000. US Census Bureau Geography Division. 20 de mayo de 2002. Archivado desde el original el 23 de febrero de 2010. Consultado el 26 de diciembre de 2009.
↑Natalie Portman y Serena Williams crean Angel City, Infobae
↑Carrillo, Adolfo (2000). Cuentos californianos. Alicante: Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Consultado el 1 de octubre de 2018.
↑«California's Sister State Relationships | Senate Office of International Relations». soir.senate.ca.gov. Consultado el 26 de mayo de 2021.
↑«Wayback Machine». web.archive.org. 29 de septiembre de 2018. Consultado el 26 de mayo de 2021.
León-Portilla, Miguel. (1989) Cartografía y crónicas de la antigua California.
Portillo y Díaz de Solano, Álvaro del. (1982) Descubrimientos y exploraciones en las costas de California (1532-1650).
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Sacramento, city, capital of California, U.S., and seat of Sacramento county, in the north-central part of the state. It is situated in the Sacramento Valley along the Sacramento River at its confluence with the American River, about 90 miles northeast of San Francisco and 45 miles north of Stockton.
The capitol actually was in San Jose for a short while, then a few other bay/delta cities, and moved to Sacramento when the state was incorporated. Classic case of “location, location, location.”. The third largest city in CA in the 1860s was Bodie, north of Mono Lake at 8300′ on the Eastern side of the Sierras.
08-12-2021 · What are California’s nicknames? “Golden State” has long been a popular name in California and was officially nicknamed in 1968. This is especially relevant because modern California can be traced back to the discovery of gold in 1848 and the golden poppy fields. can be seen every spring across the state.
10 city nicknames and their interesting stories of origin
Boise, & quot; City of Trees & quot; Give GorinGetty pictures. …
New Orleans, & quot; The Big Easy & quot; …
Las Vegas, & quot; Sin City & quot; …
Seattle, & quot; Emerald City & quot; …
Miami, the & quot; Magic City & quot; …
Denver, & quot; The Mile High City & quot; …
New York City, & quot; Big Apple & quot; …
Philadelphia, “City of Brotherly Love”;
What kind of city is known as dirty? “Dirty Durham is now a well-established brand and it’s a cool thing to call Durham. Additional variations of the name include “Dirty D” and “The Dirty.” For the locals, it has been a commendable recognition of the city.â €
What is a nickname for London?
London nicknames In addition to official names, the capital has won several specialties over the years. Probably the most famous is The Big Smoke, The Old Smoke or just The Smoke. These names refer to the dense fog and smog that permeated the city from ancient times.
What is Leeds city nickname?
10 city nicknames from the UK City nicknames often come out formally or unofficially as part of urban relocations aimed at improving a city’s perceived identity, but sometimes they haunt the city decades later – Leeds as a “Motorway City” in the 1970s.
What are cities nicknames?
The top nickname in the poll was New York’s “Big Apple,” followed by “Sin City” (Las Vegas), “The Big Easy” (New Orleans), “Motor City” (Detroit), and “The Windy City” (Chicago). .
Do all cities have nicknames?
Every major American city has a stable of nicknames, but some have certainly entered the national lexicon in a way that others simply do not. (You keep trying, the capital of the world’s fire hydrant.)
Is Leeds the 3rd largest city in England?
Find out more about Leeds, the UK’s third largest city. Leeds is the third largest city in the United Kingdom after London and Birmingham. It is a city in the north of Yorkshire and the largest city in West Yorkshire.
What is Los Angeles nickname?
What is the city of Los Angeles nickname?
One is just the city initials L.A. It is also called the City of Angels because Los Angeles means “angels” in Spanish. Los Angeles often has warm, sunny weather. So another nickname is the City of Flowers and Sunshine.
What are California’s nicknames?
“Golden State” has long been a popular name in California and was officially nicknamed in 1968. This is especially relevant because modern California can be traced back to the discovery of gold in 1848 and the golden poppy fields. can be seen every spring across the state.
Is River City filming again?
Following a break from the coronavirus pandemic, plans are underway to resume shooting in Scotland’s award-winning sequel to River City in August.
Is Caitlin leaving River City? WATERLOO Road bosses contacted River City and asked if they would release Christina, a teenager from the contract. Actress Caitlin Gillespie kidnapped the producers of the rival Scottish series Waterloo Road from River City.
Is David Paisley leaving River City?
Who plays Rory Murdoch?
Has River City stopped filming?
River City monitors the lives of people living and working in the fictional Shieldinch district. … Production of River City was halted in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and filming resumed in August 2020. Instead of new parts, a number of “classic” parts were broadcast.
What was the last episode of River City?
What happened to Charlotte in River City 2021?
This is bad news for young Charlotte if her condition starts to get worse after the amputation surgery. The Murdochs contract after the terrible and unexpected news that he has developed sepsis.
Who was Charlotte in River City?
River City (TV series 2002–2002) – Daisy Veldhoven as Charlotte Crozier, Charlotte Murdoch – IMDb.
Why is Jacksonville called the First Coast?
The name refers to both the geographical status of the area and the “first coast”; which many visitors reach when entering Florida, as well as the history of the region as the first place in the continental United States to see European contacts and settlements.
What is River City in the Navy?
For those who do not know the term navy, “River City” means a communication loss on the ship. Maybe you talk to your sailor, you won’t hear from him for days, weeks, or a month for us.
What does River City mean? This means that they interrupt all non-critical information. No phones, no internet, etc. Only official traffic is allowed. “River City” comes from the acronym “RC”, meaning “reduced communication.” The term was invented to distinguish it from EMCON conditions.
Why is it called River City in the Navy?
When a servant dies in a battle zone, the entire area of operation goes to the so-called “River City”. River City is a military term for “Reduced Communications,” a complete disruption of any and all non-operational communications assets.
Is River City a real place?
In the heart of Willson’s “hailstone and sarsaparilla zone” is the real River City. Its real name is Mason City, Iowa, and it’s really a place with a marching band, a hairdressing quartet and gorgeous ice cream parlors. … Local tradition says he gave his first name “l” to Willson.
What does River City mean?
A river city is a common name used to describe any city along a river.
What is rivercity one Navy?
For those unfamiliar with the Navy’s term, “River City” means the ship is in communication. Maybe you talk to your sailor, you won’t hear from him for days, weeks, or a month for us.
Subsequently, question is, why is the California State Capitol important? History. “The immigration of thousands of “Forty-niners” in search of gold prompted California's admission as the 31st state into the Union in 1850, thus creating the need for a state capital. California did not have a permanent seat of government until 1860 ...
The flag was designed by William Todd on a piece of new unbleached cotton. The star imitated the lone star of Texas. A grizzly bear represented the many bears seen in the state. The word, “California Republic” was placed beneath the star and bear. It was adopted by the 1911 State Legislature as the State Flag.
Capital City: Sacramento
Population (2019): 38,332,521; Rank: 1 of 50 | Population Quick Facts
Admission to Statehood: September 9, 1850 (31st State)
State Motto: Eureka (Greek) translates to I found it!
State Nickname: Golden State
Origin of State Name: Named by the Spanish after Califia, a mythical paradise in a Spanish romance, written by Montalvo in 1510.
Flag: Historic Bear flag raised at Sonomaon June 14, 1846, by a group of American settlers in revolt against Mexican rule. The flag was designed by William Todd on a piece of new unbleached cotton. The star imitated the lone star of Texas. A grizzly bear represented the many bears seen in the state. The word, “California Republic” was placed beneath the star and bear. It was adopted by the 1911 State Legislature as the State Flag. Learn more details about the California flag.
Flower: California Poppy (Eschscholtzia californica)
Soil: San Joaquin
Song: “I Love You, California” | Words by: F.B. Silverwood | Music by: A.F. Frankenstein
Tree: California Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens & Sequoia gigantea)
Quarter: Reverse -Depicts naturalist John Muir, the Yosemite Valley, and a soaring California condor. Obverse features an image of George Washington.
Interesting, before differentiating capitals between Alta and Baja Californias Loreto served as the capital of Las Californias from 1697 to 1777. So while Monterey was the first capital of Alta California which we know as California today, Loreto served both Californias for the earliest Spanish settlers.
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